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BIO121-ch2

TermDefinition
religion expression of human belief in, and reverence of, a superhuman power, which may be recognized as a creator and governor of the universe, a supernatural realm, or an ultimate meaning
pantheism belief that multiple gods were responsible for the various forces and workings of nature
monoteism belief in a single God who created the universe but is separate from and outside of His creation
anthropocentric worldview way of perceiving reality that places humans in a preeminent position that is both above, and separate from, the rest of nature
biocentric worldview way of perceiving reality that recognizes an inherent worth in all life and maintains that humans are no more or less valuable than all other parts of creation
stewardship worldview way of perceiving reality that maintains humans have a responsibility to care for earth
ethics branch of philosophy concerned with standards of conduct and with distinguishing between right and wrong behavior
morals principles that help to distinguish between good and evil
frontier ethic code of conduct based on premises: resources are essentially unlimited, exploration or human inventiveness will discover new resources to replace those resources that are deplete, tech will solve prob arising from human exploitation of the environment
environmental ethics caring about the planet and all of its inhabitants, allowing unselfishness to control the immediate self-interest that harms others, and living each day so as to leave the lightest possible footprints on the plants
land ethic biocentric code of conduct based on the premise that nonhuman nature has intrinsic value
stewardship ethic anthropocentric; it is a code of conduct based on premise that humans are to act as stewards of nature, with the responsibility of caring for and nurturing out planet
economics discipline concerned with he production, distribution, and consumption of wealth and with the various related problems of labor, finance, and taxation
natural capital natural resources
human capital skill and labor
economic goods manufactured capital
manufactured capital clothes and appliances, for example
throughput natural capital used to produce economic goods because these resource are taken from the environment, used by humans to produce goods, and eventually returned to the environment
economy system of production, distribution, and consumption of economic goods or services
traditional economy ppl grow their own food and make the goods that they need to survive
pure command economy government makes all economic decisions, such as what goods to make and how to distribute goods/service among the population
pure market economy - pure capitalism, economic decisions are made by buyers and seller in the marketplace and are based not he interactions of demand, supply, and price
mixed economic system one that combines elements of all 3 major economic systems
economic growth an increased capacity of the economy to produce goods and services
gross national product (GNP) total national output of all goods and services valued at market prices in current dollars for a given year
real GNP the GNP adjusted for any rise in the average price of final good and services
real GNP per capita real GNP divided by the total population
ecosystem services functions or processes of a natural ecosystems and its biota that provide benefits to humans
net national product (NNP) based on GNP but factors in the depletion or destruction of natural resources
human development index proposed by UN Development Programme, uses 3 indicators: life expectancy at birth, literacy rates, and real GNP per capita to estimate the average quality of life in a country
index of sustainable economic welfare (ISEW) adjusts the per capita GNP according to inequalities in income distribution, resource depletion, loss of wetlands, loss of farmland, and the cost of air and water pollution
- internal costs direct costs
external costs harmful social or environmental effects of the production and consumption of an economic good that are not included in the market price of the good
- cost-benefit analysis technique used to compare the estimated costs (losses) of a proposed project with the benefits to be gained
culture of consumption disposable products proliferate, products quickly become outdated and are replaced by newer models, and fashion dictates that we change clothing and home styles frequently
ecological economics transdsiciplinary field of study that addresses the relationships between ecosystems and economic systems in the broadest sense
sustainability relationship between dynamic human economic systems and larger dynamic, but normally slower-changing, ecological systems, in which human life can continue indefinitely, human individual can flourish, and human cultures can develop
steady-sate economy (SSE) characterized by constant level of human population and a constant level of artifacts, known as stock
sustainable development improving quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems
- sustainable resource use use of renewable resources at rates that do not exceed their capacity for renewal
green taxes fees assessed to discourage the use of environmentally harmful practices or products or to extend the life of nonrenewable resources
government established system of administration through which a nation, state, or district is ruled
politics encompasses principles, policies, and programs of government; arena in which citizens debate those issues that affect their individual and collective health and welfare
environmental law organized way of using all of the laws in a nation’s legal system to minimize, prevent, punish, or remedy the consequences of action that damage or threaten the environment
common law body of written and unwritten rules based on precedent
precedent legal decision or case that may serve as an example, reason, or justification for a later decision
nuisance class of wrongs that arise from the unreasonable, unwarrantable, or unlawful use of a person’s own property that produces annoyance, inconvenience, or material injury to another
trespass unwarranted or uninvited entry upon another’s property by a person, the person’s agent, or an object that he or she cause to be deposited there
negligence failure to exercise the care that a “prudent person” usually takes, resulting in an action or inaction that causes personal or property damage
statutory law body of facts passed by a local legislature or Congress
education study of the processes through which students learn, developing knowledge, skills, and expertise in diverse subjects
environmental education concerned with he process of learning about he biosphere, its associated problems, and the human role in causing and solving those problems
Created by: tallzy14