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Chapter 9 Biology

Cellular Respiration

QuestionAnswer
What's the definition for fermentation? a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without oxygen. This yields small amounts of ATP.
What's the definition of cellular respiration? organic molecules consume oxygen and yield abundant ATP.
What's the definition of oxidation? a substance loses electrons, or is oxidized
What's the definition of reduction? a substance gains electrons, or is reduced (the amount of positive change is reduced)
Explain in general terms how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Some do not transfer electrons but the electron sharing in covalent bonds
NAD and FADH are electron carriers that transfer electrons. They are also known as what? electron shuttles
Describe the role of NAD+ in cellular respiration. Electrons from organic compounds are usually first transferred to NAD+, a coenzyme. NAD dehydrogenase is the enzyme that extracts 2 electrons and 2 protons (H+) from organic food molecule.
What happens at the very end of the chain in cellular respiration? oxygen pulls electrons down the chain in an energy-yielding tumble. The energy yielded is used to regenerate ATP.
Name the three stages of cellular respiration. Glycolysis, The Citric Acid Cycle, and Oxidative Phosphorylation
In cellular respiration, what does glycolysis do? it breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
In cellular respiration, what happens during The Citric Acid Cycle? this completes the breakdown of glucose
In cellular respiration, what does oxidative phosphorylation do? electron transport and chemismosis (this accounts for most of the ATP synthesis--90%)
Explain where and how the respiratory electron transport chain creates a proton gradient. the protons in the intermembranous space are at a higher concentration than in the matrix. This produces a gradient of difference in ion gradient. The energy stored in this gradient is used the synthesis of ATP.
What's the definition of substrate level phosphorylation? it's the production of ATP from ADP by a direct transfer of high-energy phosphate group from a phosphorylated intermediate metabolic compound in an exergonic catabolic pathway.
What's the definition of oxidative phosphorylation? is the production of ATP using energy derived from the transfer of electrons in an electron transport system and occurs by chemiosmosis.
What is fermentation all about? produces ATP without the use of oxygen, cellular respiration requires O2 to produce ATP, glycolysis can produce ATP with or without O2 (in aerobic /anaerobic condtions), and in the absence of O2, glycolysis couples with fermentation to produce ATP
What are the types of fermentation? alcohol and lactic acid
What's alcohol fermentation? pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, with the first releasing CO2
What's lactic acid fermentation? pyruvate is reduced to NADH, forming lactate as an end product, with no release of CO2.
What is a good example of lactic acid fermentation? cheese and yogurt
What is a good example of alcohol fermentation? brewing, winemaking, and baking
Explain what anaerobic respiration is all about. Glycolysis is part of this process and does not use and oxygen in any of the nine steps.
What's the definition of obligate anaerobes? they'll die when exposed to atmospheric levels of oxygen
What's the definition of faculative anaerobes? they can use oxygen when it's present
A molecule is oxidized when it what? loses an electron
In cellular respiration, ____ is oxidized and ____ is reduced. glucose, oxygen
Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from _____. chemiosmosis
What best describes the electron transport chain? electrons passing from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step
An electron carrier acts as an energy-storage molecule when it's _____. reduced...NADH
The function of cellular respiration is to _____. extract usable energy from glucose
A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis ____. by the transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP
During respiration in an eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur, or are located in or on ______. the cytosol
Most of the NADH that delivers high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain comes from ______. chemiosmosis
Why is the Krebs cycle called a cycle? the two-carbon acetyl coA binds to a four-carbon molecule that's restored at the end of the cycle
In the Krebs cycle, the energetic production per glucose molecule is _______. 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
How many ATPs are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation from the complete breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen? 4 ATP
After completion of the Krebs cycle, most of the usable energy from the origainl glucose molecule is in the form of _______. NADH
The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used to ____. pump H+ through a membrane
The enzyme ATP synthase forms ATP ____. due to the potential energy of a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions across a membrane
During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen is used ____. at the end of electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
If humans did not breathe in O2, we wouldn't ___. make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements
During respiration in an eukaryotic cell, the electron transport chain is located in or on the _______. cristae of the mitochondrion
How much ATP can a cell make from one glucose molecule in the presence of carbon monoxide? 2ATP
In glycolysis in the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound? NAD+
Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate in order to _____. regenerate (oxidized)
In brewing beer, maltose (a disaccharide) is ___. the substrate for alcoholic fermentation
When protein molecules are used as fuel for cellular respiration, ___ are produced as waste. amino groups
Created by: RosauraPerez