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Geography TEST 8B

Geography TEST

QuestionAnswer
What is climate? Climate is the average weather of an area over a long period of time
What are the two main categories of factors of climate change? Human and Natural
Give examples of the two main categories of factors of climate change. Part 1 Natural - volcano eruptions (ash in the air blocks sun’s rays which could influence temperature and precipitation over a long period of time.
Give examples of the two main categories of factors of climate change. Part 2 -Earthquakes and tsunamis can have long term effects on land, which could affect climate over a long period of time. -Tilt of the earth (latitude affects climate) Human factors, pollution (greenhouse gases) and burning fossil fuels, clear cutting
How does climate influence where we live? Part 1 Agriculture: We can’t grow crops because of the cold weather conditions (e.g. must import oranges to Canada for adequate vitamin C in diet) Transportation: can be stopped due to extreme weather conditions. Less people will be living in these areas.
How does climate influence where we live? Part 2 -northern regions of Canada, dependence on frozen bodies of water to aid in transportation. -access to resources only allow for certain types of transport
How does climate influence where we live? Part 3 -Preference -people want to live where there are seasons. - Close to Water - fresh water is scarce; ability to access water for sanitation, drinking, etc. -Avoidance of natural disasters, landslide risk precipitation/flooding occurs at higher altitudes.
Why do we use the term ‘climate change’ instead of ‘global warming? Global warming refers to only the surface temperature, while climate change includes warming and the “side effects” of warming like heavier rainstorms or more frequent drought climate change is a global issue.
Why do we use the term ‘climate change’ instead of ‘global warming? Part 2 The climate will change according to location. How the climate changes (hot, cold, less/more rain) depends on where you live.
What are physical processes? Any naturally occurring change on or in the earth. e.g. earthquake, drought, tsunami, floods, hurricanes, erosion, landslides, desertification, dust storms.
What threats do floods have on settlements? Part 1 -Disease: waterborne diseases -erosion - land and home loss, takes away nutrients from soil -drought - in other areas, as flooding normally means that water is simply being deposited elsewhere, away from other regions.
What threats do floods have on settlements? Part 2 -sea levels rising - coastal regions under water, sinking land, brackish salty water makes soil less fertile crops too hard to grow
What is drought? A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall; a shortage of water resulting from this
What effects did the drought of 2005 have on the the Amazon River basin? Part 1 The Rivers and lakes had the lowest water level in many decades, the drought had a large impact on transportation - watercraft was primary method of transportation; no water, no boats moving
What effects did the drought of 2005 have on the the Amazon River basin? Part 2 fishery- fish breeding during rainy seasons; - conservation of species in an ecosystem, food source limited. navigation routes changing; people moving away to find areas with water.
What effects did the drought of 2005 have on the the Amazon River basin? Part 3 agriculture, - plants need water; drought makes irrigation impossible fire - drier conditions lead to risk of forest fires. - start with lightning or cooking fires health in the region. -takes decades to regrow; no water to put out fires.
What causes the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse gas particles that keep the energy radiating from of the sun in the atmosphere longer by not allowing it to escape into space and reflecting it back down to earth again.
What are the two main greenhouse gases? The two main greenhouse gases are methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
How do the greenhouse gases absorb energy from the sun? It absorbs and re-emits Infrared Radiation. The molecules vibrate and move and absorb energy. The charges on the molecules are not evenly distributed, so the molecules flex (absorb energy)
What is a tsunami and what affect does it have on settlements? A tsunami is a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance flooding, wash away coastal regions and settlements.
How do earthquakes influence settlements? How do people adapt to living in these areas?(Consider building codes/laws, evacuation plans, early warning systems) Part 1 Building codes: - stricter laws to govern the construction of new buildings to withstand the forces of an earthquake; no basements (unsettled earth) - LA - height limits, must be able to absorb shockwaves.
How do earthquakes influence settlements? How do people adapt to living in these areas?(Consider building codes/laws, evacuation plans, early warning systems) Part 2 Emergency Plans:Earthquakes influence settlements because for example, in California they have things at schools like earthquake drills where they get underneath their desks so rubble can't crush them.
What is the Ring of Fire? Where is it located? The ring of fire is an area in the pacific basin that a large number of active volcanoes and earthquakes occur; along the borders of tectonic plates.
What is drought and how does it affect settlements? A drought is a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall; a shortage of water resulting from this. In a drought, plants dry up and livestock die from lack of water. River and lake levels also drop making it hard to fish.
What is desertification? The process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation/clearcutting, or inappropriate agriculture
How can we slow down desertification? (Think about the example of China, p.54) Making sure we replant trees after we cut some down, and make sure we perform agricultural practices correctly (plant along the borders of desert-prone areas, introduce laws that stop/limit clearcutting.,
Dust storms are a consequence of desertification. What are the positive and negative impacts of dust storms? Part 1 Negative: Human health - blindness caused by sand/dust, respiratory illness Crop damage, soil productivity losses, mass migration, and impact on climate. erosion speeds up, disrupts transportation
Dust storms are a consequence of desertification. What are the positive and negative impacts of dust storms? Part 2 -dust in atmosphere can affect sunlight reaching land, could affect water sources . -no mitigation, only adaptation. Positive: But sometimes, dust storms bring in rich nutrients with them.
How would the problems created by an ice storm be different for people living in rural vs urban communities? Think about emergency procedures, timelines, population, access to equipment/resources, roads, power outages. Part 1 Emergency Procedures + Access to Equipment/Resources: Rural - people have to be self-reliant because emergency services are too far away to act immediately. Example: Plow attachments at most residences to maintain their own properties.
How would the problems created by an ice storm be different for people living in rural vs urban communities? Think about emergency procedures, timelines, population, access to equipment/resources, roads, power outages. Part 2 Urban areas have their own staff to remove snow to keep driveways and roads clear. Rural residents likely to have gas powered generators in the event of an outage.
How would the problems created by an ice storm be different for people living in rural vs urban communities? Think about emergency procedures, timelines, population, access to equipment/resources, roads, power outages. Part 3 Population: -higher populations in urban areas require more emergency service stations. They also have better access to public transportation, so they will likely be less impacted by an icestorm
How would the problems created by an ice storm be different for people living in rural vs urban communities? Think about emergency procedures, timelines, population, access to equipment/resources, roads, power outages. Part 4 Timelines: - urban areas are serviced more quickly because of their tax base (more money means better service).
How would the problems created by an ice storm be different for people living in rural vs urban communities? Think about emergency procedures, timelines, population, access to equipment/resources, roads, power outages. Part 5 Roads: Cities (urban) have less trees to fall down as a result of an ice storm, so less damage. Rural areas- trees falling = major concern.
How would the problems created by an ice storm be different for people living in rural vs urban communities? Think about emergency procedures, timelines, population, access to equipment/resources, roads, power outages. Part 6 Power Outages: Well people on farms would kind of be stranded out there. While people in the city can walk, in a rural area you are basically on your own. In the city ice storms knock over telephone poles and trees, Rural= more livestock, less trees
Why do people choose to live close to volcanoes? (Think of farming and mining, tourism, geothermal energy) Part 1 -volcanic ash can add nutrients to soil, making it ideal for groing certain crops. -mining: certain precious /rare minerals found close to volcanoes
Why do people choose to live close to volcanoes? (Think of farming and mining, tourism, geothermal energy) Part 2 -tourism - volcanoes attract tourists/visitors, scenic (usually located close to the coast, tropical location, climate is typically warm and consistent)
Why do people choose to live close to volcanoes? (Think of farming and mining, tourism, geothermal energy) Part 3 Geothermal energy) - Because they have a great source of clean energy right underneath their homes. It's not cheap to install, but it's cheaper in the long run.
How have the people of Bangladesh adapted to their environment? Shelter - floating buildings to avoid damage from rising sea levels; build houses on supports, moved to higher elevations to avoid flood;
How have the people of Bangladesh adapted to their environment? Part 2 Other government/health buildings also floating or relocated. Some homes are easy to dismantle (portable), especially close to the water. Food - chose salt-water resistant plants and crab and shrimp food sources that thrive in flooded areas.
What is a landslide? A landslide is when too much water on a slope causing the water to flow down making a landslide.
What are two human activities that increase the chances of landslides occurring? Clear cutting and mining because with trees, the roots keep the soil in place and mining because you’re digging a hole into the earth decreasing stability and the building/construction of roads.
How can a landslide be beneficial to settlement? Part 1 When the objects fall they can form a dam. Then sediments form around it (Materials within the landslide are moved great distances, distributing potentially useful material to different areas.
How can a landslide be beneficial to settlement? Part 2 Flattened land is easier to grow crop on, so the ‘levelling’ of the land could create agricultural opportunities.
What are the 4 main ways that climate change affects settlements? Warmer Temperatures Changes in Precipitation More Frequent and Extreme Storms Rising Sea Levels
How could Warmer Temperature affect settlements around the world? (Think growing seasons, transportation, recreational activities Part 1 Growing seasons: Warmer temperatures can affect our land use because longer growing seasons can be good but other countries may experience more severe drought and desertification. The growing season could shorten with a lack of water for irrigation.
How could Warmer Temperature affect settlements around the world? (Think growing seasons, transportation, recreational activities Part 2 Transportation: The ability to travel without large issues like snow being a problem Settlements and recreation: People could move to more northern regions because of midler temperatures;
What is a climate model? Name one predicted change in Precipitation by 2099 (See diagram on page 59) Part 1 Climate model - mathematical representation of earth’s processes, atmosphere, and water conditions to show possible changes over time.
What is a climate model? Name one predicted change in Precipitation by 2099 (See diagram on page 59) Part 2 -climate change in 2099: European countries to expect less precipitation;Summers are already significantly drier; this change will make conditions worse.
Where do hurricanes/Typhoons/Cyclones form? How are they different? They all form over bodies of water: Hurricanes: Atlantic, Carribean, Central and Northeast Pacific Typhoons: Northwest Pacific Cyclones: South Pacific and Indian Oceans
Why are sea levels rising? (Two main reasons) Glaciers melting due to climate change: Warm water takes up more space than cold.
How do people cope with /adapt to flood prone regions? Part 1 Move; change buildings to suit floods (either make them easier to move (take down and set up, sort of like a tent) or make them more cheaply and expect the damage.
How do people cope with /adapt to flood prone regions? Part 2 Food: they can either import food into the area, or they can grow crops that are more flood resistant.
What is land reclamation? How does it work? The recreating of land from the ocean by depositing soil/rock/dirt from other areas along the shore line to add living space. Developers are also using dikes to stop/slow down erosion from the water.
What are the steps to creating a land use map? Making a title Colours - each colour represents a different land use Have a legend - should include major land uses, such as residential,commercial, recreational, open space, agricultural, institutional Out line roads,Bridges,parks buildings
How are rising sea levels and coastal erosion related? Why do people choose to live along the coast? Part 1 -Aesthetics (appearance) People choose to live near this area because of the view. -Resource: Oceans are rich in resources, including water, minerals, and wildlife. This creates appeal in the area.
How are rising sea levels and coastal erosion related? Why do people choose to live along the coast? Part 2 Link between rising sea levels and coastal erosion: As the sea level rises, the water comes in contact with the land along the coast. Depending on the salinity of the water and the force of the waves, the land will erode away, either slowly or quickly
What is a river delta? A river delta is a region where rivers flow towards a large body of water, where they bring sediment from upstream and deposit it into the area. As the sediment builds up, it creates new lobes of land at the mouths of rivers
How are river mouths similar to bellybuttons? What causes ‘inneys’ and ‘outies’ at the mouths of rivers? What does it depend on? River deltas are the outies, as sediment is deposited from upstream land. The sediment builds up and creates outies or deltas. If the water is rough enough, however, it could carry away sediment from the area. This could create innies or ‘inlets’
Aid organizations tried to protect farmers from flooding by building dikes (banks of earth that control water flow) How did this plan backfire and cause problems for the farmers? This plan backfired because the water was strong enough to flow over the dikes. Once inside the dike region, the water was trapped; this resulted in flooded areas that were not draining anywhere.
How are water-borne diseases associated with flooding? Explain the symptoms, method of spread, and possible treatments of a specific water-borne disease. Part 1 Diseases are associated with flooding because when the flood happens the people living in the area have to still live around it and they have to find a way to live during a flood. Also they are more at risk with the getting diseases.
How are water-borne diseases associated with flooding? Explain the symptoms, method of spread, and possible treatments of a specific water-borne disease. Part 2 Living things that have been flooded, both plants and animals, will decompose and promote bacteria to grow. Example of Waterborne illness Typhoid fever bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage
How have Bangladeshi farmers solved the following problems? Salty/brackish water? They adapted by planting salt-resistant crops, such as strains of rice, and water lettuce / spinach, etc.
How have Bangladeshi farmers solved the following problems?Flooded fields? They They cut holes in dikes to control where the water goes and allow the flooded fields to drain properly.
How have Bangladeshi farmers solved the following problems?Food sources in flooded areas? Adapted by raising species such as crab and shrimp that do well in salt water conditions.
How have Bangladeshi farmers solved the following problems?Flooded homes? They moved to higher ground; some built their houses in a manner that was easy to disassemble and reuse in another location and built their building floating
Created by: 1367512528