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Electricity Basics

Chapter 7 - Standard Esthetics

active electrode used on the area to be treated
alternating current (AC) rapid and interrupted current
amp (A) also ampere, unit that measures the amount of an electric current
alternating current (AC) current flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction
anaphoresis process of forcing liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole
anode (+) positive electrode
blue light therapeutic light that should be used only on oily skin that is bare
blue light light that contains few heat rays, is the least penetrating, and has some germicidal and chemical benefits
cataphoresis process of forcing acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole
cathode (-) negative electrode
circuit breaker switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of overload
complete circuit the path of an electric current from the generation source through conductors and back to its original source
conductor any substance, material, or medium that easily transmits electricity
converter apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current
desincrustation the use of galvanic current to create an alkaline chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum and debris
direct current (DC) constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only
electric current flow of electricity along a conductor
electricity form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects
electricity a flow of electrons
electrode applicator for directing the electric current from the machine to the clients's skin
electromagnetic radiation energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
electromagnetic radiation also called radiant energy because it carries, or radiates energy through space on waves
radiant energy also called electromagnetic radiation, energy in the form of electromagnetic waves; carries, or radiates energy through space on waves
electrotherapy the use of electrical devices for therapeutic benefits
faradic current alternating and interrupted current that produces a mechanical reation without a chemical effect
faradic current generator used for stimulation of muscles and nerves of a body
fuse special device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit
galvanic current a constant and direct current (DC)
galvanic current uses a positive and negative pole to produce the chemical changes of desincrustation, an iontophoresis
inactive opposite pole from the active electrode
infrared rays invisible rays that have longer wavelengths, penetrate deeper, and produce more heat than visible light
insulator substance that does not easily transmit electricity
nonconductor also insulator,substance that does not easily transmit electricity
iontophoresis also ionization, process of introducing water-soluable products into the skin by using electric current
ionization also iontophoresis, process of introducing water-soluable products into the skin by using electric current such as that from the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine
kilowatt (K) 1,000 watts
laser a medical device used for hair removal and skin treatments
light therapy the application of light rays to the skin for the treatment of acne, wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal
microcurrent a device that mimics the body's natural electrical energy to reeducate and tone facial muscles
microcurrent improves circulation and increases collagen and elastin production
milliampere one-thousandth of an ampere
ampere (A) also amp, it is the measurement of the number of electrons passing through a given point in one second intervals
ampere (A) also amp, a unit of electric current, or amount of electric charge per unit time
modalities currents used in electrical facial and scalp treatments
sensory modality or stimulus modality, one aspect of a stimulus
modalities temperature, taste, sound, pressure
sensory modality the type of sensory receptor activated by a stimulus, plays the primary role in coding the stimulus modality
ohm (O) unit that measures the resistance of an electric current
ohm (symbol: Ω) unit of electrical impedance or, in the direct current case, electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm
electrical impedance or simply impedance, describes a measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating current (AC)
phototherapy also light therapy, a form of treatment used for various skin contitions using artificial light wavelengths from the ultraviolet (blue light); part of the sun's spectrum
ultraviolet light causes progressive damage to human skin; is mediated by genetic damage, collagen damage, as well as destruction of vitamin A and vitamin C in the skin and free radical generation
photothermolysis process by which light from a laser is turned into heat
plug two- or three-pronged connector at the end of an electrical cord that connects an apparatus to an electrical outlet
polarity negative or positive pole of an electric current
rectifier apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current
red light therapeutic light used on dry skin in combination with oils and creams
red light light that penetrates the deepest and produces the most heat
sinusoidal current alternating current similar to faradic current
sinusoidal current current that produces mechanical contractions and is used during scalp and facial manipulations
Tesla high-frequency current thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration
Tesla high-frequency current also called violet ray
ultraviolet (UV) rays invisible rays that have short wavelengths, are the least penetrating rays; produce chemical effects, and kill germs
ultraviolet rays also called cold rays or actinic rays
visible light the primary source of light used in facial and scalp treatments
volt(V) unit that measures the pressure of force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor
watt (W) measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second
wavelength distance between two successive peaks of electromagnetic waves
white light referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all the visible rays of the spectrum
Sinusoidal current is best suited for what type of client? nervous
What are the benefits of sinusoidal current? supplies greater stimulation,deeper penetration and is less irritating than faradic current; soothes nerves and penetrates into deeper muscle tissue
microcurrent an extremely low level of electricity current that mirror's the body's own natural electrical impulses
microcurrent current that mimicks the way the brain relays messages to the muscles
microcurrent current that has no chemical effect, is exercise for the muscle
describe direct surface application the esthetician holds the handpiece, where the glass electrode is inserted, and applies it directly to the client's skin, moving it slowly over the entire face for stimulation
describe indirect application the client holds the tube electrode (with metal coil inside) while the esthetician massages the face with her hands.
indirect at no time should the esthetician hold the electrode during this type of application
contraindications for electrotherapy pacemaker/heart conditions; epilepsy; open cuts, sores, pustular acne, abrasions; diabetes; metal dental/facial implants, braces, pins, plates; prenancy; dilated capillaries;recent laser resurfacing or chemical peel; client uses Accutane/retinoid products
the energy of electromagnetic waves radiant energy
the entire range of wavelenghts of electromagnetic radiation (radiant energy) electromagnetic spectrum
invisible rays make up _____ % of natural sunlight 65
wavelength the distance between two successive peaks or waves
ultraviolet (UV) rays make up _____% of natural sunlight 5
ultraviolet light therapy increases the elimination of waste products; improves the flow of blood and lymph; has a germicidal and antibactreial effect; produces vitamin D in the skin; can be used to treat rickets, psoriasis, and acne
infrared light therapy heats and relaxes the skin; dialates blood vessels and increases circulation; produces chemical changes; increases metabolism; increases production of perspiration and oil; deep penetration relieves pain in sore muscles; soothes nerves
white light therapy relieves pain in the back of the neck and shoulders; produces some chemical and germicidal effects; relaxes muscles
blue light therapy soothes nerves; improves acne; improves skin tone; provides some chemical and germicidal effects; used for mild cases of skin eruptions; produces little heat
red light therapy improves dry, scaly, wrinkled skin; increases rate of collagen building; relaxes muscles; penetrates the deepest; produces the most heat
which machine has a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of occillation or vibration? high-frequency
blue light light therapy that should be used on oily skin only
red light light therapy that is used on dry skin in combination with oils and creams
light-emitting diode LED
LED can be blue, red, yellow or green light
LED works by releasing flashing light onto the skin to simulate specific responses
intense pulse light this uses a broad spectrum of focused light to treat spider veins and brown spots (hyperpigmentation)
Created by: heaneyl