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General 12

Q bank: Randomly Generated 12

QuestionAnswer
Autoimmune disorder in which antibodies attack desmosomes resulting in blistering of the skin. Bullous pemphigoid/Pemphigus vulgaris, I think these two may be different, not quite sure?
"Locked-in" syndrome is due to inhibition of descending corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers. Damage to which structure results in this syndrome: Thalamus, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla, Cervical spine? Pons
This drug is an alpha 1 selective-adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of both hypertension and BPH. Terazosin
In down syndrome, what is the defective embryologic event that produces the endocardial cushion defect? Inadequate migration of neural crest cells
One side effect of this anticoagulant is necrosis of the skin (typically breasts, thighs, and buttocks) as a result of depleted protein C resulting in a hypercoaguable state. Warfarin
What is the half life rule of thumb? Levels decrease by half every half-life, thus drug will be at 50% in one half life, 25% at two half lives, 12.5% in 3 half lives and so on.
Babesia is transmitted via ixodes tick as is this organism? Borrelia Burgderfori; Dermacentor tick transmits rickettsia
Patient has red scaly plaque with rough texture, 1 cm diameter, and irregular margins on neck. Biopsy demonstrates epidermal and dermal cells with large, pleomorphic, hyperchromatic nuclei. Diagnosis? Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin; Actinic keratosis (hyperplastic lesion of sun damaged skin) predisposes to this (as well as xeroderma pigmentosa of course)
What is the drug of choice for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? Beta blockers (metoprolol)
This drug at toxic levels can cause supraventricular tachycardia. Digoxin; Adenosine is the treatment
What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele? Gastroschisis is viscera protruding from abdominal cavity caused by incomblete fusion of the lateral body folds; omphalocele the presence of intestinal loop in the umbilical cord due to failed retraction of the intestinal loop
Serum sickness is a condition commonly caused by hypersensitivity to drugs. Symptoms include fever, cutaneous eruptions (morbiliform and/or urticaria), lymphadenopathy and arthralgias. What is the treatment? Oral prednisone (for arthralgias and skin rash) and diphenhydramine (to alleviate urticaria)
These two drugs inhibit T-cell activation by inhibitting transcription of IL-2. Tacrolimus, cyclosporine; both are llimited by nephrotoxicity (which can be avoided with the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus)
Black necrotic lymph nodes transmitted by arthropod. Buboes; seen in Yersinia pestis (plague) spread by fleabite
What must the platelet count be reduced to before generalized bleeding disorder becomes apparent? 15,000-20,000; normal is 150K to 450K
UV damaged DNA produces what abnormality, normally corrected by nucleotide excision repair? thymidine/thymidine dimers
O antigen of salmonella, erythrogenic exotoxins of S pyogenes, diptheria toxin and botulinum toxin are all genetically coded in what location? Lysogenic phage genome
The only location of striated muscle not under voluntary control. Esophagus
This drug is the only non-competitive alpha-1 blocker used in cases of malignant hypertension and pheochromocytomas. Irreversibly binds receptor decreasing NE efficacy. Phenoxybenzamine
This drug is a non-selective competitive alpha-blocker that has largely supplanted more selective alpha-1 blockers. Phentolamine
In a menopausal women, will GnRH be elevated, decreased, or the same? Elevated; LH and FSH will be elevated as well with reduced estrogen
This term is used to define multiple, often seemingly unrelated, physical effects caused by a single genotype. Pleiotropy; example is multiple bone fractures and blue sclerae seen in osteogenesis imperfecta
This syndrome is the number one cause of acquired heart disease in children. Characterized by fever greater than 10 days, desquamative rash of fingers and toes, cervical lymphadenopahty, bilateral conjunctivitis, and other symptoms. Kawasaki syndrome; transmural inflammation and variable necrosis of arteries (1-2% develop coronary artery aneurysm)
Which has a thicker peptidoglycan layer, gram positive or gram negative bacteria? Gram positive
Monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-2 receptor. Daclizumab
What condition are Mallory bodies associated with? Alcoholic hepatitis; these are eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in degenerating hepatocytes
Administration of this drug for tuberculosis can result in neurologic symptoms such as convulsions and fasciculations. Isoniazid, can deplete body's vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) so often given as a supplement.
This virulence factor converts hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, allowing it to survive in phagolysosomes. Catalase
What are the 3 most common cancers in women? Breast (26%), Lung (15%), Colorectal (11%)
What part of the colon is retroperitoneal? Ascending and descending colon; also most of the pancrease and the distal 2/3rds of the duodenum
A diet high in these is what is believed to be responsible for the increased incidence in gastric adenocarcinoma among the Japanase population. Food preservatives
What effect do restrictive lung disease have on pulmonary compliance? They will increase elastance and thus decrease compliance
What is the most likely means of acquiring Ascaris lumbricoides infection? Ingestion of eggs from human feces
In multiple sclerosis, diplopia is a common complaint. If a patient has diplopia that is worse when they look to the left, in what direction will the right eye turn? The left eye will drift to the left, while the right eye will stop in the center; due to damage of the medial longitudinal fasciulus which links the abducens and oculomotor nuclei during lateral gaze
This apolipoprotein activates lipoprotein lipase. CII
A patient deficient in the complement factors C6, C7, and C8 are at risk for recurrent meningitis from this organism. Neisseria
Fasting hypoglycemia and hypoketosis occurring together is strongly suggestive of a block in fatty acid oxidation. What are the two primary causes of fatty acid oxidation disruption? Carnitine uptake deficiency, and Long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) deficiency; the two would be distinguished by the buildup of Carnitine esters in muscle and serum which is unique to LCAD (as carnitine would be deficient in the other, DUH!)
Created by: rahjohnson