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AP Comp Gov Unit III

Political and Economic Change

QuestionAnswer
Reform a type of change that does not advocate the overthrow of basic institutions
Revolution Implies change at a more basic level, and involves either a major revision or an overthrow of existing institutions
Liberalism Supports reform and gradual change rather than revolution
Conservatism Resistant to change and emphasizes the fact that it sometimes brings unforeseen outcomes
Radicalism Is a belief that rapid, dramatic changes need to be made in the existing society, often including the political system
Coup d’ etats Generally represents the most limited of the three types of change; literally “blows to the state”, they replace the leadership of a country with new leaders
Reactionary Beliefs They want to turn back the clock to an earlier era, and reinstate political, social, and economic institutions that once existed
Competitive Elections Regular, free, and fair; election offers a real possibility that the incumbent government may be defeated
Civil Liberties Such as freedom of belief, speech, and assembly
Neutrality of Judiciary Courts are free of political considerations and place checks on the abuse of power by other branches
Open Civil Society allows citizens to lead private lives and the media to operate independently from the government
Substantive Democracy Citizens have access to multiple sources of information and the party currently in power can actually be removed from power
Procedural (illiberal) Democracy Democratic procedures in place but have significant restrictions on them, party in power is in no danger of losing power
Great Reform Act of 1832 About 300,000 more English men gained the right to vote, and the House of Commons gained more power in relation to the House of Lords
Reform Act of 1867 The English electorate reached 3,000,000, as many working-class people were given the right to vote
Representation of the People Act of 1884 The English electorate was further expanded so that the majority of the voters were working class
Women’s Suffrage Women are allowed to vote
Labour Party British political party founded in 1906 to represent the rights of the newly-enfranchised working man
Trade Union Council Emerged as a coalition of trade unions that has been a major force in British politics
Collective Consensus After World War II ended in Britain the spirit of cooperation continued well into the 1960s, with both Labour and Conservative parties supporting the development of a modern welfare system
Beveridge Report Provided for a social insurance program that made all citizens eligible for health, unemployment, pensions, and other benefits
National Health Service British universal health care founded in 1948
OPEC Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries - Oil Cartel
Margaret Thatcher Conservative British Prime Minister that dominated the 1980s and reversed many of the big government initiatives of the 1960s.
Neoliberalism A term that describes the revival of classic liberal values that support low levels of government regulation, taxation, and social expenditures and the protection of individual property rights
John Major British Prime Minister after Margaret Thatcher, he was more moderate than she was
Tony Blair’s “Third Way” A centrist alternative to the old Labour Party on the left and the Conservative Party on the right
David Cameron’s “Big Society One that is energized by grass-roots, volunteers, and private organizations; no longer harnessed by “big government”.
Huntington's Four Factors of Democratization • Loss of legitimacy • Expansion of an urban middle class • “Human rights” • “Snowball” effect
Marketization creation of an economic system in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value
Privatization the transfer of state-owned property to private ownership
Decemberist Revolt of 1825 Russian revolt by frustrated intellectuals , quelled by Nicholas I
Zemstvas Regional assemblies set up by newly freed serfs
Bolsheviks Lenin’s followers, they took control of the Russian government in late 1917
Lenin’s New Economic Policy Allowed a great deal of private ownership to exist under a centralized leadership
Nomenklatura The process of party members selecting promising recruits from the lower levels for advancement
Central Committee Top Soviet government officials, group of 300 party leaders who meet twice a year
Politburo The heart and soul of the Communist Party; group of about 12 men who ran the country, and their decisions were carried out by government agencies and departments
Kulaks Resistant peasants who usually owned larger farmers; forced to move to cities or labor camps, and untold numbers died due to the government officials
Gosplan Russian Central State Planning Commission
Stalinism the two-pronged program of collectivization and industrialization, carried out by central planning, and executed with force and brutality
Khrushchev’s Secret Speech Khrushchev revealed the existence of a letter written by Lenin before he died that was critical of Stalin, and Khrushchev used it to denounce Stalin’s rules and practices, particularly the purges that he sponsored
Destalinization A soviet program to attempt to undo much of damage done by Stalin's economic and social programs
Glasnost This term translates from the Russian as “openness”, and it allowed more open discussion of political, social, and economic issues as well as open criticism of the government
Perestroika An economic program in the late Soviet Union that transferred many economic powers held by the central government to private hands and the market economy
Hegemony The state of being an unassailable single power
Revolution of 1911 Chinese nationalist revolution led by Sun Yat-sen that was a successful attempt to reestablish China as an independent country
Chiang Kai-Shek Founded the Chinese Nationalist Party (Guamindang)
Two Chinas Both the PRC and the Taiwanese governments claim to be the legitimate government of both nations
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) An attempt by Mao to destroy the old Chinese culture of hierarchy and inequality
The Great Leap Forward (1958-1966) Communist China's attempt to break away from the Soviet Model of development and make china more egalitarian
Miguel Hidalgo Mexican parish priest led a popular rebellion against Spanish rule In 1810
Benito Juarez Liberal president; one of Mexico’s greatest heroes; was a military general with a base of support among elites as well
Porfirio Diaz One of Juarez’s generals – staged a military coup in 1876 and instituted himself as the president of Mexico with a promise that he would not serve more than one term - remained dictator for 34 years
Cientificos A group of young technical advisors that believed in bringing in scientific and economic progress to Mexico
Emilio Zapata Mexican caudillo and rebel
Pancho Villa Mexican caudillo and rebel
Mexican Constitution of 1917 Set up a structure for democratic government in Mexico – complete with 3 branches and competitive election (but political assassinations continued into the 1920s)
PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party, dominant political party in Mexican politics
Sexanio Each Mexican president gets one six year term called a sexanio
Lazaro Cardenas Transformational and charismatic Mexican president sometimes called the "Roosevelt of Mexico"
Ejidos Land redistributed from rich landowners and foreigners to peasants
PEMEX A giant government – controlled Mexican oil company
Pendulum Theory The theory that nations move from a desire to reform to a desire to return to tradition, then they move to back to desiring reform. This continues forever.
Safavid Empire Empire in what is now Iran that began in the 16th century and by mid-17th century had successfully converting nearly 90% of their subjects to Shiism
People of the Book Monotheistic people who subjected their lives to holy books similar to the Qur’an
Qajars Turkish group that conquered Iran and retained Shiism as the official state religion
Majles public assemblies in Iran; not only had the authority to make and pass laws but it also controlled cabinet ministers, who reported to the legislature, not the shah
Guardian Council Clerics that had the power to veto any legislation passed by the Majles
Tudeh Party Iranian communist party gained most of its support from working class trade unions and challenged the Shah
Muhammad Mosadeq Led the Iranian National Front party; he influenced many later political leaders; had support from middle-class who emphasized Iranian nationalism
Rentier State Economy is heavily supported by state expenditure, while the state receives rent from other countries
Import Substitution Industrialization Encouraging domestic industries to provide products that the population needed
Iranian White Revolution Redistributed unused land and granted many rights to women
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Fundamentalist leader of the Islamic Revolution of 1979
Jurist’s Guardianship Originally gave the senior clergy broad authority over unfortunate people in the society, but Khomeini claimed that the true meaning of jurist’s guardianship gives the clergy authority over the entire Shia community
Assembly of Religious Experts A 73-man Iranian assembly of clerics elected directly by the people
Ali Khamenei Current Ayatollah of Iran
Sokoto Caliphate In 1808 the Fulani established a Muslim state that encompassed the entire northwest, north mid-section, and part of the northeast of Nigeria
Olusegun Obasanjo Military dictator of Nigeria, in 1979 willing stood down for a democratically-elected president, Shehu Shagari, but Shagari was forced out of office in 1983 by a military coup led by General Mahammed Buhari
National Question Should Nigeria be one country or several?
Created by: M.Brock