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Weathering and Soil

sediment small pieces of broken rock; usually clay, silt and sand
mechanical weathering physical process that breaks apart rock
causes of mechanical weathering plant roots and burrowing animals; ice; large surface area; cold climates
chemical weathering chemicals reactions dissolve minerals
causes of chemical weathering carbonic acid; oxidation; warm climates
climate patterns of weather that occur over time
soil formation mixture of weathered rock, decayed organic matter, mineral fragments, and air; influenced by climate, vegetation, time; can take thousands of years
soil composition sediment, humus, air and water pockets
humus decaying, dark-colored plant and animal material
soil profile different layers of soil; Horizon A, litter, fertile layer
Horizon A top soil layer
litter organic matter that can turn into humus
fertile layer more humus and less rock/minerals
Horizon B middle layer; less humus, lighter color than Horizon A; minerals from leaching
leaching how minerals travel through different rock layers
Horizon C bottom layer of soil; very little organic matter; no leaching; has rock (parent material for soil); deposited by glaciers
parent material rock where soil comes from
soil types sand, silt, or clay; formed different climates, parent rock, time, and slopes
soil erosion when soil is removed; plants can't grow
causes of erosion Agriculture (farming); forest harvesting; overgrazing; urban construction
erosion prevention manage crops; plants shelter trees; cover soil with compost; graze animals on vegetation; no-till farming
prevent erosion on slopes contour farming; terracing
contour farming plant along the curves of slopes
terrace farming plant steep-sided flat areas (look like steps) on the sides of hills and mountains
prevention erosion in construction use mulch, mats, or plastic; spray water; replace topsoil; plant trees; net and straw; retaining wall
mulch ground up wood and plant matter
retaining wall wall that holds back soil
Created by: GarrisonWAHS