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General 11

Q bank: Randomly Generated 11

QuestionAnswer
A patient has dementia, what does atrophy of the cortex and frontal lobes tell you versus a patient with diffuse atrophy? Atrophy of the cortex and frontal lobes is characteristic of Pick disease; diffuse atrophy is associated with alzheimer disease
This patient was told not to ingest artificial sweeteners, what is the mode of inheritance of this disorder? Phenyketonuria is autosomal recessive; shouldn’t ingest aspartame, remember, this is especially important in pregnancy as phenylalanine crosses the placenta and can lead to profound retardation and other birth defects
This diuretic is associated with hypercalcemia. Thiazide
Angiosarcoma is a multinodular tumor of the liver associated with exposure to what toxic chemical used in the rubber industry? Vinyl chloride
Fat, carbohydrate, and protein in the duodenum all stimulate the release of this hormone? GIP; CCK is released in response to fat and protein, but not carbohydrates
Mycoplasma pneumonia lack a cell wall and are thus indifferent to penicillin, ampicillin, and cephalosporins. What is the treatment of choice? Erythromycin
G5P0 woman suffers from recurrent miscarriages in the first trimester, what is the most likely cause? t(14,21) Robertsonian translocation; bicornuate uterus can also result in recurrent miscarriages but first trimester is indicative of Robertsonian translocation
What innervates the opponens policis? What innervates the adductor policis? Opponens policis: Median nerve; Adductor policis: Ulnar nerve
This portion of the brain is concerned primarily with planning and fine-tuning of movements and balance. Damage will result in truncal ataxia with a wide-based "drunken-sailor" gait. The cerebellum; cerebellar vermis
Absence of deep tendon reflexes, extensor plantar response are commonly found with damage to this area of the brain. Medulla
What are the organisms that patients with splenectomy are at increased risk for? Encapsulated organisms; Strep pnuemoniae (most common), H influenza, and N. Meningitidis
“Blueberry muffin” disease in children infected in-utero, characterized by thrombocytopenic purpura, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and inracerebral calcifications. What organism is responsible? CMV
Child born with PDA, pulmonary stenosis, microcephaly, cataracts, and deafness. What organism is responsible Rubella
Child born with perforated palate, notched teeth, maculopapular bronzing rash, bone deformations, and CNS damage. What organism is responsible? Syphilis
What is the second messenger of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors versus the second messenger of beta-2 adrenergic receptors? Alpha-1: IP3/DAG; Beta-2: cAMP
Rheumatic disease, Grave’s disease, and Myasthenia Gravis are examples of this type of hypersensitivity? Type II hypersensitivity; SLE is an example of type III hypersensitivity (antigen-antibody complexes)
In what type of patients would you expect to see an elevated gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase? Alcoholics
What type of hepatitis is associated with polyarteritis nodosa? Hepatitis B (and C but not as much as B)
This drug decreases TG’s, increases HDL, decreases C-reactive protein, and decreases blood glucose. Used to treat metabolic syndrome. Thiazolidinediones
Trousseau’s syndrome is associated with this underlying condition? Pancreatic carcinoma; Trousseau’s syndrome is migratory thrombophlebitis (clot formation and dissolution secondary to tumor secretion of platelet aggregating factors), other cancers may also show this presentation
In a deficiency caused by deficient purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), what is the substance that accumulates? Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; monosodium urate
The HSV type 2 virus is dormant in what ganglia: Dorsal root, sacral, or trigeminal? Sacral; Dorsal root ganglion is site of dormancy for VZV
This type of seizure is characterized by loss of postural muscle tone that only lasts a few seconds. Atonic seizure
What are the tumor suppressor genes associated with the following chromosomes: 3p, 5q, 17p, 17q, 18q? 3p: VHL; 5q: APC (colon); 17p: p53 (Li-Fraumeni syndrome); 17q: BRCA-1; 18q: pancreatic cancer
This autosomal recessive disorder results in a severe form of hereditary emphysema as well as hepatic dysfunction. alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; elastase hyperactivity from neutrophils destroys lungs elastin
I hate Q bank because they are now insisting that this test, is preferred over India ink when testing for cryptococcus neoformans infection. Latex particle agglutination
This deficiency is the most common urea cycle disorder and results in elevated glutamine and urine orotic acid. Ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC) deficiency; Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) deficiency (the second most common) will yield elevated glutamine as well but no rise in urine orotic acid.
This cytokine instructs macrophages to become epitheliod and form multinucleated giant cells, which are more apt to engulf and eliminate foreign antigens. Interferon gamma
What would be the treatment for a patient with acute pyelonephritis with bacteremia? Ampicillin and gentamicin; drugs like erythromycin and tetracycline are bacteriostatic antibiotics and are not recommended in a patient w/ severe infection
This deficiency is the most common urea cycle disorder and results in elevated glutamine and urine orotic acid. Ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC) deficiency; Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) deficiency (the second most common) will yield elevated glutamine as well but no rise in urine orotic acid.
This cytokine instructs macrophages to become epitheliod and form multinucleated giant cells, which are more apt to engulf and eliminate foreign antigens. Interferon gamma
What would be the treatment for a patient with acute pyelonephritis with bacteremia? Ampicillin and gentamicin; drugs like erythromycin and tetracycline are bacteriostatic antibiotics and are not recommended in a patient w/ severe infection
This neurotransmitter is of primary importance for induction of REM sleep. Acetylcholine
3 days after a viral illness, 3yro develops severe vomiting, irritability, followed by lethargy. PE shows hepatomegaly. What is the syndrome and what cellular structure is functioning abnormally? Reye syndrome (fatty liver with encephalopathy); abnormality in mitochondria
In this disease, atrophy of the anterior horn produces muscle weakness, hypotonia, loss of deep tendon reflexes, absent babinski, and fasciculations. Werdnig-Hoffman disease
In both prerenal azotemia and postrenal obstruction BUN/creatinine ratio will increase, how would you distinguish the two based solely on these two characteristics? Prerenal: BUN is increased and creatinine is usually near normal; Postrenal: BUN and creatinine are both increased but BUN is increased to a greater degree
Autoantibodies to intercellular junctions of epidermal cells results in vesicle and bullae formation and seperation of epidermis upon manual stroking. Diagnosis? Pemphigus vulgaris; Note that the seperation of epidermis upon manual stroking is Nikolsky's sign and it is also found in Stevens-Johnson syndrome, but that is associated with medication use.
What metabolite is frequently found in the urine of patients with carcinoid syndrome? 5-HIAA; Carcinoid tumors may secrete variety of GI peptides (gastrin, insulin, VIP, glucagon) as well as ACTH and calcitonin, but the major product is 5-HT, that is why the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA is increased
This moa-i blocks serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake to reduce appetite and increase energy expenditure. Sibutramine
Once preterm delivery becomes apparent, what should be administered to the mother to prevent respiratory distress in the infant? Glucocorticoids
In hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer and hereditary endometrial cancer, what is the result of the mutation? Deficient mismatch repair; typically resulting in microsatellite instability
Lipoprotein lipase hydrolyzes TG's from the chylomicron core so that fatty acids may be easily absorbed. Where is lipoprotein lipase located? External surface of vascular endothelial cells; you might be tempted to put hepatocytes, but they simply collect the chylomicron remnants after lipoprotein lipase absorbs them
What are the 3 locations of elastic fibers? Large arteries, vocal cords, and ligamenta flava (which connects the vertebrae)
Created by: rahjohnson