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General Reproduction

Reproduction The formation of new individuals
The reproductive system in humans produces, stores, and releases: Sex cells/gametes
Primary reproductive organs Testes and ovaries (they don't develop until the seventh week)
Testes produce: Testosterone
Ovaries produce: Estrogen and Progesterone
Puberty A period of rapid growth and sexual maturation where the reproductive system becomes fully functional.
Puberty begins: Around 9-15 yrs old, when the hypothalamus sends signals to the the pituitary gland in the brain to increase levels of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone.
Main function of male reproductive system: To produce and deliver sperm
Testes Male gonads, on the outside of the body.
Scrotum External sac that holds the testes
Why are the testes on the outside of the body? Sperm need to be several degrees cooler than the rest of the body so they can develop correctly.
Seminiferous tubules Clusters of hundreds of tiny tubes where sperm are produced inside the testes
Epididymus Collects fully mature sperm
Vas deferens Tube where the sperm travel to the outside of the body
Urethra Vas deferens merges with the urethra (Tube that leads to the outside of the body)
Glands lining the reproductive tract: The prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands
Glands lining the reproductive tract produce: Nutrient rich seminal fluid which nourishes sperm and protects them from the acidity of the female reproductive tract.
Semen Sperm+seminal fluid
Autonomic nervous system Prepares male organs to deliver sperm (involuntarily)
Ejaculation Act of sperm being ejected by contractions of smooth muscles (involuntarily)
Sperm are: Haploid cells formed by meiosis
Acrosome Tip of sperm filled with enzymes to break down outer layer of egg cell
Head The head of the sperm contains a highly condensed nucleus
Midpiece Part of sperm packed with mitochondria to provide energy to propel sperm forward
Tail/Flagellum Propels sperm forward
Negative feedback system As levels of testosterone rise, the production of FSH/LH is decreased. Increased production of sperm also inhibits production of FSH/LH. AND VICE VERSA!
Testosterone Hormone responsible for growth of male reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics of males.
Male secondary sex characteristics: Growth of male sex organs, sperm production, body/facial hair increase, increase in muscle mass, growth of long bones in arms/legs, deepening of voice, broadening shoulders
Route sperm takes through male reproductive system Epididymus -> Vas deferens -> Urethra
Created by: schubism