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Schizophrenia at least one month of acute symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech, disorganized behavior, and negative sx and at least 6 months of some sx of disorder
Schizophreniform disorder same sx as schizophrenia, lasting more than 1 month but less than 6 months
Schizoaffective disorder sx of schizophrenia coinciding with sx of depression or mania, but at least a 2-week period when only sx of schizophrenia present
Delusional disorder evidence only of nonbizarre delusions for at least 1 month; functioning at relatively high level
Brief psychotic disorder presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized seech or behavior for at least one day but less than one month
Shared psychotic disorder the individual in a close relationship with someone who is delusional with similar delusions
Folie a deux aka shared psychotic disorder
Substance-induced psychotic disorder hallucinations or delusions caused by the direct physiological effects of a substance
Torrey’s *SAFE* attitude the key for families coping with schizophrenia. /S/ense of humor; /A/ cceptance of illness, /F/amily balance, /E/xpectations that are realistic
Positive symptoms aka type 1 sx unusual perceptions, thoughts, or behaviors
Negative symptoms aka type 2 sx losses/deficits in certain domains, absence of usual emotions and behaviors
Examples of positive sx delustions, hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior
Delusions beliefs with little grounding in reality
Hallucinations unreal perceptual or sensory experiences
Disorganized thought and speech grossly disorganized patterns of speech
Disorganized or catatonic behavior behavior that is highly unpredictable, is bizarre, and/or shows a complete lack of responsiveness to the outside world (eg, motionlessness for long periods, untriggered outbursts)
Persecutory delusion false belief that oneself or one’s loved ones are being persecuted, watched, or conspired against by others
Delusion of reference belief that random events are directed at oneself
Grandiose delusion false belief that one has great power, knowledge, or talent or that one is a famous and powerful person
Delusions of being controlled (definition) beliefs that one’s thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are being imposed or controlled by an external force
Types of delusions of being controlled thought broadcasting, thought insertion, thought withdrawal
Thought broadcasting belief that one’s thoughts are being broadcast from one’s mind for others to hear. a type of delusion of being controlled.
Thought insertion belief that another person is inserting thoughts into one’s head. A type of delusion of being controlled.
Thought withdrawal belief that thoughts are being removed from one’s head by another person or an object. A type of delusion of being controlled.
Delusion of guilt or sin false belief that one has committed a terrible act or is responsible for a terrible event
Somatic delusion false belief that one’s appearance or part of one’s body is diseased or altered
Loosening of associations aka derailment a form of schizophrenic disorganization in which there is a tendency to slip from one topic to an unrelated topic with little coherent transition
Word Salad when the speech is so disorganized that is is totally incoherent to the listener
Neologisms words that are made up that have meaning only to that person
Clangs associations made between words, based on sounds of the words rather than content. Eg, “dog. Dog is spog. Frog. Leap. Heap, steep, creep, gotta go beep.”
Perservate on a word saying it over and over again
Smooth pursuit eye movement aka eye tracking keeping head still and tracking a moving object. Schizophrenics show deficits in this.
Working memory ability to hold information in memory and manipulate it
Catatonia a group of disorganized behaviors that reflect an extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside world
Catatonic excitement person becomes wildly aggressive for no apparent reason and is difficult to subdue
Affective flattening aka blunted affect severe reduction or complete absence of affective responses to the environment
Alogia severe reduction or complete absence of speech
Avolition inability to persist at common, goal-oriented tasks (eg, inability to get dressed)
Examples of negative sx blunted affect, alogia, avolition
Inappropriate affect eg, laughing at sad things or crying at happy things
Anhedonia loss of interest in everything in life, incl loss of ability to experience emotion
Impaired social skills eg, difficulty in holding conversations, maintaining relationships, holding a job, etc.
Poor prognosis: predominantly positive or neg sx negative sx
Respond better to meds: positive or negative sx positive sx
Root words in schizophrenia schizein=split; phren=mind
Prodromal symptoms in schizophrenia, milder sx PRIOR to an acute phase
Residual symptoms in schizophrenia, milder symptoms FOLLOWING an acute phase
5 types of schizophrenia in dsm-iv-tr 1. paranoid, 2. disorganized, 3. catatonic, 4. undifferentiated, 5. residual
major features of paranoid schizophrenia delusions and hallucinations with themes of persecution and grandiosity
major features of disorganized schizophrenia incoherence in cognition, speech, and behavior and flat or inappropriate affect
major features of catatonic schizophrenia nearly total unresponsiveness to the environment, as well as motor and verbal abnormalities
major features of undifferentiated schizophrenia diagnosed when a person experiences schizophrenic symptoms but does not meet the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic schizophrenia
residual schizophrenia hx of at least one episode of acute positive sx but currently no prominent positive symptoms
more favorable prognosis: men or women women. Women hospitalized less often and for briefer periods, show milder negative sx, have better social adjustment
excess of this neurotransmitter is associated w/ schizophrenic sx dopamine
biological theories of schizophrenia genetics, enlarged ventricles, reduced volume/density of frontal/temporal/limbic areas, birth complications esp O2 loss, prenatal virus exposure, dopamine
ventricles fluid-filled spaces in the brain
enlarged ventricles the structural brain abnormality found in schizophrenia. Suggest atrophy in other brain tissue. Assoc w/ tendency to show social, emotional, and behavioral deficits long before core sx of schizophrenia develop.
Who shows more severely enlarged ventricles: men or women men. This may partly explain their greater severity and worse prognosis.
Prefrontal cortex important in language, emotional expression, planning/producing new ideas, and mediation of social interactions
Prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia smaller and less activity in some schizophrenics, especially those with negative symptoms >>> leads to wide range of deficits in cognition, emotion, and social interactions
Limbic system involved in emotion and cognition, has connections to prefrontal cortex
Basal ganglia involved in motor movement, has connection to the prefrontal cortex
Hippocampus plays critical role in formation of long-term memories
Hippocampus in schizophrenia abnormal activation when doing tasks that require encoding info for storage in memory or to retrieve info from memory, abnormal volume/shape of cells >>> leads to difficulty in recalling information
Perinatal hypoxia oxygen deprivation during labor and delivery
Created by: jondoh