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Science 8 - Cell Sys


Digestive System System that breaks down food to be used by different cells.
Mechanical Digestion Physical breakdown of food into usable pieces (teeth chewing)
Chemical Digestion Breaks down the smaller pieces using enzymes (stomach acid)
Epiglottis Flap of skin that covers the windpipe so that food will not enter the lungs
Peristalsis Contractions of muscle tissues that moves food down the esophagus
Esophagus The tube that leads from the mouth to the stomache that food moves down.
Mucus Helps protect the stomach from digesting iteself.
Small Intestine Chemical digestions continues with digestive enzymes. The inner surface is covered with villi.
Large Intestine Digestion is complete and nutrients that have not been absorbed are turned into feces and released from the body.
Respiratory System System that transports oxygen to our cells
Define breathing Movement of air in and out of the lungs
Description of Inhalation Diaphragm and muscles between the ribs contract (tighten up) (Pulls air in) - Chest expands
Description of Exhalation Diaphragm and muscles between the ribs relax (loosen) (Pushes air out) - Chest contracts
How does oxygen get into the cells of the body? Oxygen is diffused through the alveoli into the blood stream (inhaled air) and Carbon Dioxide is diffused out of the blood stream (exhale air)
What is respiration? The rate of oxygen and carbon dioxide moving in and out of the body
Alveoli tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
Capillaries Tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanges here.
Name the organs in the Respiratory System (8) Nose/Mouth --> Epiglottis --> Pharynx and Larynx --> Trachea --> Bronchi --> Bronchioles --> Alveoli
Pharynx Tube-like passage way used by air, food and water.
Epiglottis Flap of skin at the lower end of the pharynx that covers the trachea during swallowing so food or water does not enter the lungs
Larynx Voice box
Trachea Air conducting tube that connects the pharynx with the bronchi
Bronchi Two short tubes at the end of the trachea that carry oxygen to the lungs (two lungs)
Bronchioles Tiny branches of air tubes in the lungs that carry oxygen from the bronchi to the alveoli
Alveoli Thing grape-like clusters at the end of bronchioles, covered in capillaries. This is where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the blood.
Circulatory System System that circulates/moves blood throughout the body
Describe the path of blood in the body From Body -> Right Atrium -> Right Ventricle -> Lungs then from Lungs -> Left Atrium -> Left Ventricle -> Body
Red Blood Cells Transfers oxygen and nutrients to parts of the body and removes waste.
Platelets Helps a wound close up by clotting
White Blood Cells Helps the body defend itself by protecting against infection and disease by discovering and fighting germs
Veins Blood vessel that returns blood to the heart. The color of this blood is blue and contains carbon dioxide and wastes.
Diaphgram Sheet of muscles across the bottom of chest cavity that causes us to inhale and exhale
Arteries Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. This blood is red and is rich with oxygen and nutrients.
Ventricle A larger more muscular chamber of the heart that pumps blood through the body.
Closed Circulatory System Blood stays within the heart or blood vessels
Open Circulatory System Blood does not stay within the vessels at all times
What controls the direction of the blood flow in the veins and arteries and heart? Valves
Excretory System This system eliminates waste from the body
Name organs in the excretory system Skin, Lungs, Large Intestine, Liver, Kidneys
What organs are included in the urinary system (4)? Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder and Urethra
Kidneys Filters blood and produces urine
Ureters Transports urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder Holds urine
Urethra Transports urine out of the body
Go to this website and label the digestive system (copy/paste and remove the spaces) add www to neok12.com/diagram/Digestive-System-01.htm
Go to this website and practice the parts of the excretory system (copy/paste and remove the spaces: www . purposegames.com/game/human-excretory-system-quiz
Go to this website and practice the parts of the respiratory system (copy/paste and remove the spaces: purposegames.com/game/respiratory-system-labeling-interactive-game
Go to this website and practice the parts of the cirulatory system; add www to purposegames.com/game/the-circulatory-system-game
Stomach muscular J shaped organ that has a mucus lining to protect it from the acid
What is the Endocrine System? The system that uses chemical messages (hormones) to control the body
Name the major glands within the endocrine system (10) 1. Hypothalmus, 2. Pituitary Gland, 3. Pineal Gland, 4. THyroid Gland, 5. Parathyroid Gland, 6. Thymus, 7. Adrenal Gland, 8. Pancreas, 10. Ovary or Testis
What does the Pituitary Gland do? The master gland that coordinates the work of other glands
What does the Thyroid Gland do? Keeps calcium level in the blood from rising too high and manages metabolism
What does the Adrenal gland do? Releases adrenalin
What does the Pancreas do? Makes insulin to manage glucose in the blood.
What are the two response (regulatory) systems of the body? 1. Nervous System and 2. Endocrine System
What is the Nervous System? The system that transmits signals between different parts of the body.
What pathways and organs does the nervous system use (3)? 1. Brain, 2. Nerves, 3. Sensory Organs (nose, eyes, skin, ears, tongue, proprioception)
What stimuli does the nose detect? Smell / odours - airborne chemicals
What stimuli do the eyes detect? Light energy
What stimuli do the ears detect? Sound
What stimuli does the tongue detect? Taste (chemicals)
What is proprioception? The ability to detect where your body parts are located without looking at the part.
What are nerves? Fibre bundles throughout the body that transmits messages from the brain
What is the Immune System? Three lines of defense to protect the body from invading organisms: 1. Barriers, 2. White Blood Cells and 3. Antibodies
Name four examples of a barrier line of defence? What are their purpose? Skin, Hair, Nails, Mucus They prevent invaders from entering the body.
How do white blood cells defend the body (2 points)? 1. Move towards the damaged tissue or invaders 2. Engulfs and destroys the damaged tissue or invader
What are antibodies? Y-shaped proteins produced by special white blood cells .
What is an infection? The invasion of a host organism by another organism that will live on or in the host.
Two examples of infectious organisms? 1. Bacteria 2. Virus 3. Fungi 4. Protist
What is bacteria (3 points)? Eat cells and tissue Creates toxins (poison) Found everywhere
What is a fungal infection? Fungi releases enzymes that break down cells and tissues, then they absorb the nutrients.
What is a protist infection? Grow on or in an orgams, they will eat the host cells. Transmitted by ingesting infected food or water or through other organisms like fleas, ticks, mosquitos.
What is a viral infection? Organisms made from genetic materials (DNA) and a protein coat. Invade cells by injecting their genetic material into the host cell which will then produce more viruses. The viruses rupture the host cells and release new viruses to invade more cells.
Go to this website and add www to label the heart diagram purposegames.com/game/the-heart-quiz
What are valves? One-way doors found on the sides of the human heart. They keep blood flowing in one direction in the heart.
Created by: Mackey2002