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7th IE: Chapter 5

7th grade science: Inside Earth Chapter 5

QuestionAnswer
Rock-Forming-minerals One of the common minerals that make up most of the rocks of earth’s crust
Granite A light-colored rock that has high silica content.
Basalt A dark-colored rock that is low in silica content.
Grain Rocks made up of particles of minerals or other rocks.
Texture The look and feel of the rock’s surface.
Igneous Rock Forms from the cooling of magma or lava.
Sedimentary Rock Forms when other particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed or cemented together.
Metamorphic Rock Forms when existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
List the (3) characteristics used to identify rocks. Color, texture, and mineral composition.
Identify and describe the three major groups of rocks Igneous (formed by cooling of lava or magma), Sedimentary (formed when plant & animal remains are pressed or cemented together), Metamorphic (formed by heat, pressure, and chemical reactions)
Extrusive Rock Formed by cooling lava on the earth’s surface.
Intrusive Rock Formed by cooling magma within earth.
Identify the (3) characteristics used to classify igneous rocks Origin, texture, and mineral composition.
Describe ways in which igneous rocks are used Statues, fortresses, paving streets, and public buildings.
Sediment Small, solid particles (rock or remains of living things)
Erosion Rocks broken down by weathering and moved by erosion (running water, wind, or ice)
Deposition The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it.
Compaction Sediment squeezed together by pressure.
Cementation Minerals glue sediments together.
Clastic Rock Made from broken pieces of rock.
Organic Rock From plant and animal remains.
Chemical Rock Minerals dissolved in water crystallize.
Describe (4) how sedimentary rocks form. Erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation
List and describe the three major types of sedimentary rocks. clastic (Made from broken pieces of rock), organic ( from plant and animal remains), Chemical (Minerals dissolved in water crystals)
Explain how sedimentary rocks are used. Outside walls of buildings, cement, and steel.
Foliated Metamorphic rocks that have their grains arranged in parallel layers of bands.
Nonfoliated Metamorphic rocks that have mineral grains arranged randomly.
Describe the conditions under which metamorphic rocks form. Heat and pressure
Identify the ways in which geologists classify metamorphic rocks. Classify them according to the arrangement of the grains that make up the rocks.
Explain how metamorphic rocks are used. Buildings, statues, roofing, flooring, outdoor walkways, chalkboards, and as trim for stone buildings.
Rock Cycle A series of processes on earth’s surface and in the crust and mantle that slowly change rocks from one kind to another.
Describe the rock cycle. Magma & lava + volcanic activity= Igneous rock + Erosion= Sediment + Deposition=Sedimentary rock + heat & pressure= Metamorphic rock + melting= Magma & lava
Explain the role of plate tectonics in the rock cycle. Plate movements start the rock cycle by helping to form magma, the source of igneous rock.
Created by: Marley360