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Final Exam

Acoustics The science of sounds/the physical basis of music (instruments that doesn't produce song using electronics)
Monophonic Music consisting of a single,melodic line and no accompaniment
Polyphonic Music consisting of two or more melodies sounding at the same time, having equal emphasis
Homophonic Music consisting of one predominant melody supported by a harmonic or chordal accompaniment
Continuo A technique for providing a harmonic basis in the new homophonic music of the Baroque period
Cantus Firmus A term meaning "fixed melody" that denotes a preexisting melody, often a Gregorian Chant
Melismatic A setting of a text to music in which one syllable of text is given a series of musical notes
Idiophone A percussion instrument that is struck, shaken, plucked, or rubbed ex. maracas
Membranophone A percussion instrument whose sound is produced by vibration of a stretched membrane ex. Drums
Raga one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music
Program Music Music that shows images, moods, stories, characters, and other nonmusical associations.
Symphony A multimovement work for symphony orchestra.
Opera A dramatic stage production that involves soloists who sing arias and recitatives, solo ensembles, choruses,dancing,dramatic action,costumes,staging,and orchestral accompaniment
Recitative A vocal solo in opera, cantatas, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompaniment. so all the listeners can understand the words.
motet A sacred,polyphonic composition with a nonlurgical text
Gregorian Chant church music sung as a single vocal line in free rhythm and a restricted scale
Lied art songs (Romantic German poems)
Chance Music A compositional technique whereby a composer does not control all the details of a composition, allowing the performer to make creative choices through improvisations or other means of selecting within the structure of the composition
Serial Composition A set of nonrepeated pitches
Sonata Form A structure that composers in the Classical era and since have commonly used for the first movement of a sonata, symphony,concerto,or string quarter.
Decrescendo gradually getting softer
Adante moderate slow tempo
Forte loud
Allegro fast
Largo slow tempo
Crescendo gradually getting louder
Ethnomusicologist A scholar of music in culture-of world music;one who studies ethonmusicology;one who researches the music of a culture,writes about it, and teaches others about it
Chordophone a stringed instrument
Strophic A musical structure in which the same music is used for each stanza of a ballad, song, or hymn
Improvisation The process of simultaneously composing,performing, and listening to music
Acculturation The blending of cultures. The process by which one culture assimilates or adapts to the characteristics and pratices of another
Renaissance Period 1450-1600
20th century 1900-2000
Romantic Period 19th century
Avant-garde Experimental composers who are in the forefront of musical development and are leaders in the development of new & unconventional musical styles.
Concerto a three movement work for solo instrument and orchestra that emerged during the Baroque period and has been a common instrumental genre ever since.
Overture A festive opening to an opera or other musical stage production
Mass The Roman Catholic workship service.
Ornamentation An embellishment of a melody;adding notes for decoration according to established and commonly accepted performance pratices
Tonality The gravitational pull of music toward a tonal center; the key of the music example:C major/C minor
Chromaticism proceeding by half steps,using sharps or flats
Minimalism A style of composition whose creator attempts to achieve the greatest effects from the least amount of material.
Motive A short melodic patter or phrase that is used for further development
Rondo A musical form consisting of two or more contrasting theme areas, each followed by a return to the opening theme.
Terraced dynamics a musical style characterized by abrupt volume shifts from soft to loud and back within a piece
piano soft
oral tradition the passing down of music by word of mouth from one generation to the next
consort A group of similar instruments - such as soprano, alto, tenor-that provide a homogeneous sound
Aerophone A wind instrument
Tala the rhythm and meter of the classical music of India
Art Music Music that is formed, sophisticated, urban, and appreciated by an educational elite.
Impressionism A style of music, exemplified in the works of Debussy, that avoids explicit statement and literal description but instead emphasizes suggestion and atmosphere,evokes moods, and conveys impressions of images and feelings.
Aria a lyrical song found in operas, cants, and oratorios.
Madrigal A renaissance secular contrapuntal work for several voices that originated in Italy and later flourished in England.
Reggae A synthesis of rock, rhythm, and blues, and latin American and African rhythms.
Atonality the avoidance of tonal centers and tonal relationships in music.
Tone Clusters three or more adjacent tones sounding simultaneously
Musique concrete The compositional technique of manipulating tape recorded sounds of existing natural resources.
theme and variations An instrumental form in which a stated theme is followed by a series of variations on that theme
Minuet and trio A stately dance movement in triple meter in a b a form.
Nationalistic music Concert art music that reflects national or regional rather than universal characteristics.
Classical Period 1750-1820
Baroque period 1600-1750
Patronage system A common source of income for composers
medieval period 590-1400
Created by: jenyferroxana



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