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Earth Science Vocab

sediment deposited by running water alluvium
fossil gum from the sap of ancient plants; may contain trapped and preserved insects and spiders amber
on the ocean floor benthic
giant summit depression of a volcano caldera
chemical substance containing more than one element in fixed amounts compound
curved fracture which is characteristic of some rocks and minerals such as quartz conchoidal
theoretical shift of continents due to weakness in the suboceanic crust continental drift
outer layer of the earth's surface crust
separate from a solution or melt as a solid crystallize
triangular-shaped deposit at the mouth of a stream delta
mass of a body divided by its volume; density
chemical and physical processes which transform soft sediment into consolidated rock; these take place near the earth's surface at low temperatures and pressures diagenesis
movement of the earth's crust, creating mountains, oceans, and ocean basins diastrophism
intrusion of igneous rock in older rocks with a high angle of dip dike
glacial hill drumlin
hills of loose sand created by wind dunes
part of earth's surface that is directly above the origin of an earthquake epicenter
division of geologic time smaller than a period, such as pliocene epoch
gradual wearing away of the earh's surface by wind, water, and ice erosion
the face or slope of a cliff escarpment
cracking or peeling of rocks on the surface exfoliation
molten, volcanic rocks which have cooled on the surface of the earth extrusive
break or fracture in earth's crust fault
crack in the earth's interior through which lava flows fissure
bend in the rock strata fold
consisting of thin parallel layers, as in mica foliation
mold, cast, or impression of all or part of ancient organisms that has been preserved in earh's crust; fossil
study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth geology
energy from the heat within earth's crust geothermal energy
natural hot spring that intermittently ejects water and steam into the air geyser
large body of slow moving ice and snow formed in areas where the rate of snowfall exceeds the rate of snow melt; glacier
crystals with hollowed faces hopper crystals
organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon provide natural resources such as fossil fuels hydrocarbon
study of the effects of water on the earth's surface, soil, underlying rocks, and atmosphere hydrology
rocks formed when molten material in or on earth's surface cools and hardens igneous rocks
igneous material formed among pre-existing rocks below the surface intrusive
crack in a rock mass that occurs as pressure decreases on that rock mass because the overlying rock is eroded away permitting the rock mass to expand joint
depression in a glacier deposit formed by the melting of a covered block of ice kettle
molten rock mixed with gases within the earth from which igneous rock is formed magma
layer of earth just beneath the crust mantle
to wander; riverbeds wander and widen as each flows through the path of least resistance, frequently giving a snake like path meander
elements that are solid having characteristic luster, malleability, and high electrical and heat conductivity metals
rocks that are formed when existing rocks undergo pressure and heat for extended periods of time metamorphic rocks
naturally occuring, inorganic nongaseous substances wiht limited chemical variablitiy and distinctive internal crystalline structure mineral
two or more substances combined in any amounts so that each retains its chemical identity mixture
glacial deposits of gravel, sand, and boulders moraine
natural mineral deposit from which metal can be extracted ore
scientist who studies ancient life in fossil form paleontologist
huge blocks of rocks that make up earth's crust plates
ends of the axis of a planet; the ends of a magnet poles
force per unit area pressure
radioactive, gaseous chemical element formed by the decay of uranium in rocks and soil radon
the sugary rock texture observed in marbles and quartzites saccharoidal
coloration in certain minerals due to minute, rod-like inclusions of voids, iron ore, and other minerals schillerization
medium to coarse metamorphic rocks composed of parallel layers such as mica and talc schist
rocks formed by consolidation of sedimetns; examples: limestone, sandstone, shale sedimentary rocks
instrument that measures and records the direction, intensity, and time of an earthquake seismograph
scientists who study earth movements seismologists
results when forces cause two adjacent parts of a solid to slide past one another in directions that are parallel to the plane of contact shearing
most abundant group of minerals found in earth's crust silicate
solid particles larger than clay particles but smaller than sand grains silt
a by-product, resulting from a metallurgical process, which floats on molten metal slag
ration of the weight of an object to the weight of an equal volume of water specific gravity
distinct layers of sedimentary rocks strata
fold in rock strata in which layers lean together from opposite sides; opposite of anticline; downfolded rock layers syncline
geology of earth's structural deformation tectonics
strong forward motion causing a horizontal movement of earth's crust thrust
uppermost layer of soil topsoil
condensable gas vapor
an opening inearth's surface permitting the escape of gases, liquids, fumes, etc; the main lava chamber in the neck of a volcano vent
processes that physically and chemically break apart and change rocks weathering
gravitational force that earth exerts on an object weight
Created by: platypusguy