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Osmosis, Membrane Structure, Active Transport

Turgor pressure rigidity or stiffness of plants because of water pressure in central vacuole
what does hypertonic do shrink
what does hypotonic do swell
what does isotonic do no change
facilitated diffusion diffusion with aid of channel and carrier proteins
diffusion high to low concentration
equilibrium molecules equally distribute across available area
the ability of a molecule or atom to diffuse through a membrane depend on what three factors? size, charge, polar/nonpolar
osmosis water diffusing from high to low concentration across a membrane
active transport moves molecules across membrane using ATP energy
what does active transport require ATP energy
active transport moves atoms or molecules against... concentration gradient
how does active transport change solute concentration on either side of the membrane? maintains the difference in concentration
hypotonic high water low solute concentration
hypertonic high solute low water concentration
isotonic equal water and solute concentration
channel protein provide a pathway through the lipid bilayer for a charged substance to pass
what ions or molecules pass through a channel protein and why? charged substances because the fatty acid tails don't have a charge so they don't like them
what are the two parts of the phospholipid bilayer? phosphate group head, and 2 fatty acid tails
describe the phosphate head of the phospolipid bilayer it is polar and hydrophilic
describe the fatty acid tails of the phospholipid bilayer it is non polar and hydrophobic
receptor proteins receive and transmit messages from outside the cell and transport this signal into the cell
permeable membrane membrane which things can pass through
semipermeable membrane only some things can pass through
endocytosis cells import large particles
pinocytosis cell drinking. brings in droplets of extracellular fluid
phagocytosis cell eating. moves large particles or whole organisms into cell
exocytosis vesicles join the membrane dumping out contents
why is fresh water sprayed on vegetables in a supermarket because the water makes the cells become turgid and look healthy and fresh
what are some molecules that can pass through the lipid bilayer and why? O2 CO2 NH3. because they are small and nonpolar
what is the purpose of the sodium potassium pump? to maintain original concentration for signals
how does the sodium potassium pump change the concentration of ions on either side of the membrane? pushes Na out, and pulls K in
how does the sodium potassium pump work? pushes out 3 Na and pulls in 2 K
how does a coupled channel work? two molecules will enter the cell together while one moves up concentration gradient and one moves down concentration gradient
amphipathic a molecule with difference in polarity between 2 ends resulting in a difference in water solubility
concentration gradient 2 different areas of solute
electrical gradient concentration gradient of ions
extracellular fluid fluid outside cell
glycoprotein membrane carbohydrates covalently bonded to proteins
hydrophilic water loving
hydrophobic water hating
integral protein protein that is the entire width of bilayer (transport/channel protein)
interstitual fluid (IF) fluid in between cells
intracellular fluid (ICF) fluid inside cell
passive transport substances move down their concentration gradient with no expended energy
receptor mediated endocytosis protein receptors will collect and move specific molecules into cell
selective permeable chooses what passes through
vesicle helps dump things out of membrane in exocytosis
functions of plasma membrane isolate cell contents from environment, regulate exchange of essential substances, communicate with other cells, creates attachments within and between other cells, regulates biochemical reactions
why do phospholipids take the bilayer form when placed in water? because of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions
what in animal membranes keeps them flexible? cholesterol
what feature makes the membrane fluid? unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds creating kinks
why do caribous hooves have more unsaturated fatty acids? to keep the cell membrane fluid when it is cold
what are the roles that proteins in the cell play? transport important substances, membrane structure, cell identification, acquire food, remove waste
fluid substance that can move or change shape in response to external forces
solute substance that can be dissolved in a solvent
solvent fluid capable of dissolving a solute
concentration number of something in a given volume unit
gradient physical difference in temperature, pressure, charge, or concentration in two adjacent regions
what do substances move in response to? concentration gradient
the greater the concentration gradient the faster... the rate of diffusion
membrane proteins and phospholipids can limit the things that can cross but not.... the direction of movement
what kind of hings do cell membrane let cross? examples small nonpolar O2 CO2 NH3
what kinds of things do cell membranes not let cross? examples large polar sugars, ions, water
what does the flow of water across a membrane depend on? the concentration of solutes in the internal or external solutions
aquaporins special protein channels water crosses the cell membrane in
what is it called when a plant cell is in a hypotonic solution turgid
what is it called when a plant cell is in an isotonic solution flaccid
what is it called when a plant cell is in a hypertonic solution plasmolyzed
what are the 6 major functions of membrane proteins? transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.
what stops the central vacuole from swelling? cell wall
what 2 factors decided which way water will move through a membrane? solute concentration, difference between solute concentration
recognition proteins protein that marks and identifies an unknown cell
Created by: edenbreslauer