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Biology Final

Vocabulary from Mrs. Fisher's Biology Review.

Define: Substrate the reactant in a chemical reaction upon which an enzyme acts.
Define: Photosynthesis process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.
Define: Homeostasis equilibrium and stability within an environment (i.e. ecosystem, body).
Define: Gamete a sex cell; egg or sperm.
Define: Positive Feedback control system in which sensory information causes the body to increase the rate of change away from homeostasis.
Define: Mitosis the process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents.
Define: Fertilization fusion of an egg and sperm cell.
Define: Recessive an allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype.
Define: Enzyme a protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms.
Define: Prokaryote an organism made up of cells that have no nuclei or membrane bound organelles.
Define: Osmosis diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
Define: Chromosome long, continuous strand of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information.
Define: Biomolecules (organic) any molecule present in living organisms. (i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, etc.)
Define: Meiosis form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important for forming gametes for sexual reproduction.
Define: Homozygous having two different alleles for a gene.
Define: Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ.
Define: Reactant substance that is changed by a chemical reaction.
Define: Eukaryote an organism made of eukaryotic cells; its cells contain nuclei and other organelles enclosed with membranes.
Define: Diffusion the movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Define: Cell membrane the double layer of phospholipids that forma a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.
Define: Heterozygous having two of the same alleles for a gene.
Define: Products substance formed by a chemical reaction
Define: Metabolism all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism.
Define: Somatic the cells that make up all of the body tissues, except the gametes.
Define: Negative feedback control system for homeostasis that adjusts the body's conditions when the conditions vary from the ideal.
Define: Cellular respiration the process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present.
Define: Concentration gradient the difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another.
Define: Dominant the allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype.
Zygote a cell that forms when a male gamete fertilizes a female gamete.
Created by: sydneyrs