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General 9

Q bank: Randomly Generated 9

QuestionAnswer
Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton are all common causes of this. Athlete's foot
Patient exhibits significant muscle weakness following meals rich in carbohydrates, awakens at night with attacks of paralysis. Diagnosis? Hypokalemic periodic paralysis
Calcium phosphates are found as hard nodular masses heaped up within the sinuses of valsalva. Diagnosis? Calcific aortic stenosis, most commonly found in the elderly
Decreases in migrating motility complexes (mediated by motilin) has what effect on bacteria? Increased growth
Microemboli in the ophthalmic artery leads to what visual changes? Black spots in the visual fields; microemboli often result from carotid bruit
Why should women on birth control pills and taking the antiseizure drug phenytoin or the antituberculosis agent rifampin, switch to an alternative method of birth control? Because both phenytoin and rifampin increase cytochrome P450 activity, promoting metabolism of oral contraceptives
A negative nitroblue tetrazolium test is indicative for what disease? Chronic granulomatous disease, the test is specific for reactive oxygen intermediates
Chronic rejection of a solid organ entails injury to endothelial cells mediated by what cells? T-lymphocytes
Antihypertensive agent that can cause dyslipidemia: Benzepril, Clonidine, Diltiazem, Metoprolol, Prazosin? Metoprolol has been known to cause dyslipidemias
This adenocarcinoma is notable in that it causes both lytic and blastic metastases to bone: Kidney, Lung, Thyroid, or Breast? Breast; the others only produce lytic lesions on metastasis
Autoantibodies directed against transmembrane cadherin adhesion molecules inducing acantholysis (breakdown of epithelial cell-cell connections). Pemphigus vulgaris; 5-15% Mortality rate
In hepatic encephalopathy, severe liver disease impairs capacity to detoxify ammonia generated by colonic bacteria. What is the mechanism of the drug used to treat this build up of ammonia? Lactulose; converted to lactic acid by bacterial flora --> acidifies intestinal contents --> acidic environment convers ammonia (NH3) to ammonium (NH4+) which cannot diffuse across colon membrane.
What is unique about cervical nerve 8's exit in relation to vertebral discs? It is the only cervical nerve that exits below it's corresponding vertebrae (below C7), note all following nerves also exit below but the first 7 cervical nerves exit above (because 8 cervical nerves but only 7 cervical vertebrae)
This congenital anomaly may contain heterotopic rests of gastric mucosa or pancreatic tissue. Meckel's diverticulum; a hetertopic rest is ectopic gastric mucosa which produces acid often leading to ulceration of adjacent tissue
A patient has a severed right optic nerve. What will his pupillary response in both eyes be if you shine a light in the right eye? What if you shine the light in the left eye? When light is shined in right eye, neither eyes will constrict, as the afferent signal is carried by CN II and is severed. When light is shined in left eye, both eyes will constrict as the efferent signal is carried on CN III (parasympathetics)
A person's unconscious adoption of a someone else's characteristics or activities after their death. Identification
The diversion of unacceptable impulses into acceptable outlets Sublimation
These two muscles in the rotator cuff are responsible for external rotation of the arm at the shoulder. Teres minor and infraspinatus
This muscle of the rotator cuff is responsible for abduction of the arm at the shoulder. Supraspinatus
This muscle of the rotator cuff is responsible for internal rotation of the arm at the shoulder Subscapularis
Galactocerebroside-galactosidase deficiency that affects the myelin sheaths of the CNS. Krabbe disease
The testicular arteries originate where? Directly from the aorta
What nerves arise from the medial cord only, the lateral cord only, and both the medial and lateral cord? Medial cord only: Ulnar; Lateral cord only: Musculocutaneous; Medial and Lateral cord: Median nerve
This nerve provides the parasympathetic preganglionic innervation to the internal anal sphincter signaling relaxation when the rectums is distended. Pelvic nerve; in addition to relaxxing internal anal sphincter, it initiates the conscious urge to defacate and contraction of the external anal sphincter (defecation reflex)
Lens opacifications. Cataracts
Salivation from the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are controlled by what cranial nerve? Parotid: Glossopharyngeal (IX); Submandibular and Sublingual: Facial (VII); Good way to remember this is think of where they are located and what supplies the taste receptors (CN IX post. 1/3rd, CN VII an 2/3rds)
This anti-epileptic is used to treat status epilepticus and is also a Class 1B antiarrhythmic. Notable side effect is gingival hyperplasia. Phenytoin
45 yro male is plethoric (red faced), with a cyanotic tinge to nose, ears, and lips. No smoking or pulmonary history. Spleen is palpable 3 cm below costal margin. Hematocrit is 65% (normal 41-53), and leukocyte alkaline phosphate is increased. Diagnosis? Polycythemia vera; related to myeloproliferative disorders such as CML and myeloid metaplasia w/ myelofibrosis
What hematologic factor easily distinguishes Henoch-Schonlein purpura from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura? In Henoch-Schonlein (a vasculitis involving IgA deposition) platelets will be elevated or normal, whereas in the others (thrombocytopenic!) they will be low
Friends bring in a 15 yro girl who they describe as "on something", she presents with tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis and nystagmus. What drug did this patient take: Amphetamine, Heroin, or Phencyclidine? Phencyclidine (PCP); Amphetamine can produce all of the same symptoms except nystagmus; heroin would show lethargic state with constricted pupils
Psammoma bodies are small, laminated, concentric, calcific spherules occasionally within tumors, what are the 4 tumors they are most commonly associated with? PSaMMoma!;Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, Serous papillaary cystadenocarcinoma, Meningioma, and malignant Mesothelioma
Pernicious anemia predisposes for what type of cancer? Gastric carcinoma
This is the most typical location of a volvulus in the elderly. Sigmoid colon
Synthesis of proteins destined for incorporation into lysosomes occurs in this organelle. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Sorting and packaging of proteins as well as addition of mannose-6-phosphate residues to proteins occurs in this organelle Golgi apparatus
Synthesis of triglycerides occurs in this organelle. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Created by: rahjohnson