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Meiosis

peer tutoring assignment

TermDefinition
mitosis vs. meiosis 1. genetically identical/genetically unique 2. result = diploid cells/result = haploid cells 3. asexual/sexual 4. one cell division/two cell divisions
meiosis I divides homologous chromosomes, produces two haploid cells
prophase I centrioles and centromeres move to opposite sides and homologous chromosomes pair up
metaphase I pairs of chromosomes line up randomly in the middle by spindle fibers
anaphase I pairs of chromosomes separate towards opposite sides of the cell
telophase I nuclear membrane forms around two separate cells, cytokineses (separation of cytoplasm)
meiosis II divides sister chromotids, resulting in haploid cells (DNA is not copied before-hand)
prophase II centrioles and centromeres move to opposite sides, nuclear membrane breaks down
metaphase II individual chromosomes line up in middle by spindle fibers
anaphase II sister chromatids are pulled apart towards opposite sides
telophase II cytokinesis, nuclear membrane reforms around the four individual haploid
somatic cells cell that makes up all of the body tissue and organs, except gametes
gametes sex cell (egg or sperm)
homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
autosome chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
sex chromosome chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics (determines male or female)
sexual reproduction process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produces
fertilization fusion of an egg and sperm cell
diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosome
haploid cell that has one copy of each chromosome
meiosis divides diploid cells into haploid cells, forming gametes
polar body haploid cell produces during meiosis in the female of any species
Created by: Emma Dressel