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Genetic Unit Key

Heredity - The passing of characteristics from parents to children
Trait - a genetically determined characteristic or condition
Purebred - cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding
Hybrid - the result of breeding two different animals or species
Offspring - - the product of the reproductive process of an animal. A child
Gene - The working subunits of DNA
Alleles - One or two more versions of a gene
Dominant - a gene that is stronger than a recessive one
Recessive - a gene that is weaker than a dominant one
Phenotype - physical characteristics of an organism
Genotype - genetic makeup
Homozygous - having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of heredity characteristics
Heterozygous - having unidentical pairs of genes for any given pair of heredity characteristics
Codominance - equally strong/weak gene that is not masked by the other
Meiosis - a parent cell replicates and recombines, divides once to create two daughter cells, then divides again creating four daughter cells, etc...
Haploid cells - A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Diploid cells - A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mutations - a natural process that changes a DNA sequence.
Insertion - The addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence
Deletion - A mutation in which part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication
Substitution - a type of point mutation in which a single nucleotide is substituted with a different nucleotide
Sex-linked gene - a trait that is only carried by males/females
Carrier - an individual who carries and is capable of passing on a genetic mutation associated with a disease and may/may not show symptoms
Sex chromosome - XX or XY Chromosomes
Genetic disorder - a disease or disorder caused by a defective gene
Pedigree - History of the family members in a person’s or animal's past
Selective breeding - process in which animals/plants selectively choose their mates
Inbreeding - sexual reproduction of the offspring of closely related or organisms that are closely related genetically
Hybridization - the process of combining breeding individuals from genetically distinct populations to produce a hybrid
Clone - an organism whose genetic info is identical to that of a parent organism from which it was created
Genetic Engineering - the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology
Gene therapy - experimental technique used to treat/cure disease.
Created by: Galaxy.