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Intro To Law

Intro To Law & Public Safety Study Stack.

Column OneColumn Two
Jurisdiction A politically defined geographical area.
Institution Of Social Control An organization that persuades people, through subtle & not-so subtle means, to abide by the dominant values of society.
Booking The administrative recording of an arrest.
When booking a suspect into the police blotter, what information are entered into the police blotter? Typically, the suspect's name, the charge, and perhaps the suspect's fingerprints or photograph are entered into the police blotter.
Misdemeanor A less serious crime generally punishable by a fine or by incarceration in jail for not more than 1 year.
Ordinance Violation Usually the violation of a law of a city or town.
Complaint A charging document specifying that an offense has been committed by a person or persons named or described.
Felony A serious offense punishable confinement in prison for more than 1 year or by death.
Grand Jury Indictment A written accusation by a grand jury that one or more persons has committed a crime.
Information A document that outlines the formal charge(s) against a suspect, the law(s) that have been violated, and the evidence to support the charge(s).
Arrest Warrant A written order directing law enforcement officers to arrest a person.
Defendant A person against whom a legal action is brought, a warrant is issued, or an indictment is found.
Initial Appearance A pretrial stage in which a defendant is brought before a lower court to be given notice of the charge(s) and advised of her or his constitutional rights.
Summary Trial An immediate trial without a jury.
Probable Cause A standard of proof that requires evidence evidence sufficient to make a reasonable person believe that, more likely than not, the proposed action is justified.
Bail Usually a monetary guarantee deposited with the court to ensure that suspects or defendants will appear at a later stage in the criminal justice process.
Preliminary Hearing In a felony case, a pretrial stage at which a judge determines whether there is a probable cause.
Grand Jury A group of citizens who meet to investigate charges coming from preliminary hearings.
Arraignment A pretrial stage to hear the information or indictment and to allow a plea.
Bench Trial A trial before a judge without a jury.
Plea Bargaining The practice whereby a specific sentence is imposed if the accused pleads guilty to an agreed upon charge or charges instead of going to trial.
Parole The conditional release of prisoners before they have served their full sentences.
System A smoothly operating set of arrangements and institutions directed toward the achievement of common goals.
Crime Control Model One of Packer's two models of the criminal justice process. Politically, it reflects traditional conservative values. In this model, the control of criminal behavior is the most important function of criminal justice.
Due Process Model One of Packer's two models of the criminal justice process. Politically, it embodies traditional liberal values. In this model, the principal goal of criminal justice is at least as much to protect the innocent as it is to convict the guilty.
Rapport Relationship, especially one of mutual trust.
Myths Beliefs based on emotion rather than analysis.
Norm Any standard or rule regarding what human beings should or should not think, say, or do under given circumstances.
Legal Definition Of Crime An intentional violation of the criminal law or penal code, committed without defense or excuse and penalized by the state.
Culture The beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time.
Diversity The quality or state of having many different forms, types, ideas, etc.
Ethnic Of or relating to races or large groups of people who have the same customs, religion, origin, etc.
Race A family, tribe, people, or nation belonging to the same stock.
Incident Report A police agency's compiling of basic public information related to arrests, accidents or investigations made by law enforcement. It includes who was involved, what happened, and when and where the incident took place.
Non-Verbal Communication Those aspects of communication, such as gestures and facial expressions, that do not involve verbal communication but which may include nonverbal aspects of speech itself (accent, tone of voice, speed of speaking, etc).
Concise Expressing or covering much in few words.
Supplement A section added to a book or document to give further information.
Narrative Reports A type of report through which an experience is described and told from the writer's point of view.
Spatial Of, relating to, involving, or having the nature of space.
Ambiguous Not clear, open to more than one interpretation.
Creed An idea or set of beliefs that guides the actions of a person or group.
Respect A feeling or understanding that someone or something is important, serious, etc., and should be treated in an appropriate way.
Colloquialism A local or regional dialect expression.
Preconceptions To form an opinion prior to actual knowledge or experience.
Stereotypes An often unfair and untrue belief that many people have about all people or things with a particular characteristic.
Norm Standards of proper or acceptable behavior.
Ethnocentrism Having or based on the idea that your own group or culture is better or more important than others.
Pluralism A situation in which people of different social classes, religions, races, etc., are together in a society but continue to have their different traditions and interests.
Tribalism Loyalty to a tribe or other social group especially when combined with strong negative feelings for people outside the group.
Assimilation To adopt the ways of another culture,: to fully become part of a different society, country, etc.
Bigotry Intolerance of cultures, religions, races, ethnicities, or political beliefs that differ from one's own.
Discrimination Unfavorable or unfair treatment towards an individual or group based on their race, sex, color, religion, national origin, age, physical/mental abilities, or sexual orientation.
Harm The external consequence required to make an action a crime.
Mens Rea Criminal intent; a guilty state of mind.
Negligence The failure to take reasonable precautions to prevent harm.
Actus Reas Criminal conduct - specifically, intentional or criminally negligent (reckless) action or inaction that causes harm.
Legality The requirement (1) that a harm must be legally forbidden for the behavior to be a crime and (2) that the law must not be retroactive.
Ex Post Facto Law A law that (1) declares criminal an act that was not illegal when it was committed, (2) increases the punishment for a crime after it is committed, or (3) alters the rules of evidence in a particular case after the crime is committed.
Overcriminalization The prohibition by the criminal law of some behaviors that arguably should not be prohibited.
Nonenforcement The failure to routinely enforce prohibitions against certain behaviors.
Undercriminalization The failure to prohibit some behaviors that arguably should be prohibited.
Duress Force or coercion as an excuse for committing a crime.
Juvenile Delinquency A special category of offense created for young offenders, usually those between 7 and 18 years of age.
Insanity Mental or psychological impairment or retardation as a defense against a criminal charge.
Entrapment A legal defense against criminal responsibility when a person, who was not already predisposed to it, is induced into committing a crime by law enforcement officer or by his or her agent.
Necessity Defense A legal defense against criminal responsibility used when a crime has been committed to prevent a more serious crime.
Mala Prohibita Offenses that are illegal because laws define them as such. They lack universality and timelessness.
Dark Figure Of Crime The number of crimes not officially recorded by the police.
Crime Index An estimate of crimes committed.
What Does CERT Stand For? Computer Emergency Readiness Team
|True Or False| CERTs operating in their neighborhoods can extend the capabilities of response organizations. True
|True Or False| Damage to the infrastructure often restricts the capabilities of response services. True
|True Or False| CERT requires volunteers to be extensively trained so that they can take the place of emergency responders. False
|True Or False| When response resources are limited, emergency services usually convert to a first-come, first-served basis for deploying personnel. False
What are the three steps to hazard mitigation? 1. Determining your community's probable disaster threats. 2. Identifying potential hazards in your home and workplace. 3. Taking preventive action to reduce the hazards.
What are some common disaster threats? Earthquake, Flood, Winter storm, Fire, Hurricane, Tornado, Landslide/debris flow, Wildfire, Tsunami, Hazardous materials, Volcanic eruption, Heat wave, Nuclear incident, Terrorism.
What are the three types of disaster threats? 1. Natural 2. Technological 3. Adversarial or Human Caused
What does structural mean? Hazards that are a function of the building, roof, or other components.
What does non-structural mean? Hazards related to fixtures and building contents.
Types of structural hazards and their significance vary according to the? 1. Age of the structure. 2. Type of construction. 3. Type of disaster.
What are some common structural hazards? Home Not Bolted to Foundation, Unreinforced Brick Construction, Mobile Home, Long Roof Span.
What are some important things you should include in a disaster supply kit? A toothbrush, a can opener, a first aid kit, a wrench or other basic tools, a notepad and a pencil, food, water, pet food, and a cell phone.
What are the procedures for sheltering in place? You should move to an interior room, have water, food, and snacks available, and listen to local or national warning systems.
What should you do before a disaster strikes? 1. Identify potential hazards in the home and workplace. 2. Take steps to mitigate those hazards. 3. Develop and practice a family disaster plan. 4. Assemble a disaster supply kit.
What does ICS stand for? Incident Command System
What is most critical to CERT decision-making? Ongoing communication
What does it take for a fire to burn? Fuel, Heat & Oxygen
What are the five classes of fire? A, B, C, D, & K
What four types of firefighting resources are available? 1. Portable fire extinguishers 2. Interior wet standpipes 3. Confinement 4. Creative resources
What are the main types of portable fire extinguishers? 1. Water 2. Dry chemical 3. Wet chemical 4. Carbon dioxide 5. Specialized
One of two ratings a fire extinguisher has. Fire classification rating - indicates the classes of fire on which the extinguisher is effective
One of two ratings a fire extinguisher has. Capacity rating - indicates the size of fire the extinguisher can handle
A Class A fire is made of? Ordinary combustibles
A Class B fire is made of? Flammable and combustible liquids
A Class C fire is made of? Electrical equipment
A Class D fire is made of? Combustible metals
A Class K fire is made of? Cooking oil or fat
A fire extinguisher with a fire classification rating of ABC can be used to extinguish which fires? Electrical equipment fires, flammable liquids fires, and ordinary combustibles fires.
What are some fire hazards in a home or workplace? 1. Electrical hazards 2. Natural gas hazards 3. Flammable liquids
|Unsafe Or Safe| Placing an electrical cord beneath a rug. Unsafe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Plugging one power strip into another. Unsafe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Using a power tool with a heavy-duty extension cord. Safe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Plugging a heavy appliance directly into a three-prong wall outlet. Safe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Using a device with a frayed cord. Unsafe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Using a three-prong extension cord as permanent wiring for a piece of electrical equipment. Unsafe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Plugging a refrigerator into a power strip. Unsafe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Plugging a computer and printer into a power strip with a circuit breaker. Safe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Connecting a bedside lamp to an outlet behind the dresser using an extension cord. Unsafe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Turning off electricity by shutting off individual breakers first, and then the main circuit. Safe
|Unsafe Or Safe| Wading through 2 inches of water to the electrical box while wearing rubber boots. Unsafe
What does LIES stand for? Limit, Isolate, Eliminate, Seperate
What safety equipment do CERT members wear in a disaster situation? Gloves, Goggles, Dust mask, Helmet, Sturdy shoes or boots.
What does PASS stand for? Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep
Fire Safety Rule #1 Use personal safety equipment (sometimes called PPE, for "personal protective equipment") to protect yourself.
Fire Safety Rule #2 Don't try to fight a fire alone. Always have a buddy, and have a back-up team.
Fire Safety Rule #3 Check before entering.
Fire Safety Rule #4 Plan your exit.
Fire Safety Rule #5 Maintain a safe distance and position in relation to the fire.
Fire Safety Rule #6 Suppress only small fires.
What is considered a small fire? A small fire is considered the size of a small wastebasket.
Fire Safety Rule #7 Use the correct equipment in the correct manner.
Fire Safety Rule #8 Overhaul the fire.
Hazardous materials are materials that? 1. Corrode other materials. 2. Explode or are easily ignited. React strongly with water. 3. Are unstable when exposed to heat or shock. 4. Are toxic to humans, animals, or the environment.
All weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are hazardous materials. They might include: Chemical agents, Biological agents, Radiological and nuclear materials, Explosives.
What does WMD stand for? Weapons Of Mass Destruction
What are the three killers? Airway obstruction, bleeding, and shock.
Offenses Known To The Police A crime index, reported in the FBI's uniform crime reports, composed of crimes that are both reported to and recorded by the police.
Crime Rate A measure of the incidence of crime expressed as the number of crimes per unit of population or some other base.
Uniform Crime Reports A collection of crime statistics and other law enforcement information gathered under a voluntary national program administered by the FBI.
Eight Index Crimes The Part I offenses in the FBI's uniform crime reports. They were (1) murder and non-negligent manslaughter, (2) forcible rape, (3) robbery, (4) aggravated assault, (5) burglary, (6) larceny - theft, (7) motor vehicle theft, and (8) arson.
Status Offense An act that is illegal for a juvenile but would not be a crime if committed by an adult.
Crime Index Offenses Cleared The number of offenses for which at least one person has been arrested, charged with the commission of the offense, and turned over to the court for prosecution.
Self-Report Crime Surveys Surveys in which subjects are asked whether they have committed crimes.
2nd Ammendment Protects the right to bear arms.
8th Ammendment Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment.
What is the CERT Goal? A CERT member's goal is to act safely to do the greatest good for the greatest number of survivors.
What is the first step to treating an obstructed airway? Shake the person and shout: Can you hear me?
What is the second step to treating an obstructed airway? If the person doesn't respond, place your palm on the person's forehead.
What is the third step to treating an obstructed airway? Place two fingers of the other hand under the person's chin and lift the jaw while tilting the head back slightly.
What is the most common airway obstruction in an unconscious or semiconscious person? Tongue
The goal of triage is to? Identify and treat survivors who are "Immediates" as rapidly as possible.
Created by: JacyndaW