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Musculoskeletal Func


Bone specialized form of connective tissue
skeleton 206 bones
axial skeleton forms the long axis of the body and includes the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
appendicular skeleton bones that form the arms, shoulders, pelvis, and legs
long bones have diaphyses, that are longer than they are wide, epiphyses at either end, compact bone, and spongy bone that are less dense than the outer regions and contain bone marrow
diaphyses bone bodies
epiphyses growth plates
compact bone hard outer surfaces of bone
spongy bone inner region that contain bone marrow
short bones as wide as they are long; primarily to provide support and stability with litle movement
flat bones strong, level plates of bone that provide protection to the body's vital organs and a base for muscular attachment
irregular bones do not fall into any other category due to nonuniform shape
sesamoid bones usually short or irregular bones embedded in a tendon. e.g. patella
periosteum connective tissue that covers compact bone surfaces; serves as the site of muscle attachment (via tendons). richly supplied with blood vessels that enter the bone at numerous sites
osteoblasts outer surface of the periosteum contains cells that aid in remodeling and repair
bone marrow inside the shaft of long bones
red marrow in newborns serve as blood-cell factory (hematopoiesis)
yellow marrow as humans age, red marrow turns to fat, creating yellow marrow. begins to form during adolescence and is present in most bones by adulthood
osteocyte complex of osteoblasts that are surrounded by calcified extracellular material
osteoclasts cells that break down spongy bone, while osteoblasts build new compact bone to increase bone strength
matrix osteocytes are embedded in extracellular material referred to as the matrix consists of calcium phosphate crystals
appositional growth new bone forms on the surface of a bone
endochondral growth bone eventually replaces new cartilage growth in the ephiphyseal plate
lamellae bone tissue contains many osteocytes organized in thin layers
cartilage shiny connective tissue that is tough and flexible
hyaline cartilage type most closely associated wtih bone and found in joints
joints structures that connect bones of the skeleton
synovial joints complex and vary significantly; contain cartilage that is lubricated by a transparent viscous fluid (synovial fluid)
joint capsule structure that joins one bone to another
ligaments parallel bundles of dense connective tissue
amphiarthroses slightly moveable joints; in vertebral column
synarthrose immoveable joint
sutures immoveable joints in the skull
skeletal muscles connect to bone
smooth muscles line hollow organs, tubes, and are involuntary
cardiac muscle heart; involuntary
tendons specialized tough cords or bands of dense connective tissue that are continuous extensions of the periosteum
muscle fiber cylinder with multiple nuclei
myofibrils threadlike structures that extend the entire length of the muscle fiber
Myofilaments two types: actin and myosin
actin involved in muscular contractions, cellular movement, and cell shape maintenance
myosin darker and thicker than actin; fibrous globulins that work with actin to form actomyosin
sarcomeres repeated structural units
Created by: sonata17