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Sociology Exam 3

For Final Exam

Medicalization The process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such
Role Theory individuals take on roles in society like actors
Sick Role the social rights and obligations of a sick individual
Morbidity illness in a general sense
The Whitehall Study attempted to control for the differences between and among men in different occupations or social positions
Selection Theory genetics and biology determine both health and SES
Drift explanation health causes social position
Social Determinants Theory social position determines health
Census define family by 2 or more people living together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption
Social Science a relationship by blood, marriage, or affection, in which members may cooperate economically may care for children, and may consider their identity to be intimately connected to the larger group
Nuclear Family familial form consisting of a father, a mother, and their children
Extended Family kin networks that extend outside or beyond the nuclear family
Family of Orientation the family that you are born into
Family of Procreation the family you make through marriage, partnering, and/or parenthood
Fictive Kin nonrelatives whose bonds are strong and intimate
Monogamy marriage between two spouses
Polygamy a system that allows for more than one spouse at a time
Polyandry marriage in which husbands can have more than one wife
Polygyny marriage in which wives can have more than one husband
Legal Marriage a legally binding agreement or contractual relationship between 2 people and is defined and regulated by the state
Social Marriage relationship between 2 people who cohabit and engage in behavior that is essentially that same as that within a legal marriage, but without engaging in a marriage ceremony validated by the state
Marital Decline Perspective marriage is increasingly being threatened by the hedonistic pursuits of personal happiness at the expense of long-term commitment
Marital Resilience Perspective marriage is no weaker than in the past, but that all families need an increase in structural supports over time
Cohabitation an arrangement in which 2 people live together without being married
What is the most common type of household in contemporary US? duel earner or single parent
The glass ceiling an invisible barrier to moving up your occupation
The glass escalator the propensity for men entering traditionally female occupations to get promotions at a higher rate
The gender gap in pay the difference between men and women's earnings in the workforce. current US average is 79%
Human Capital Theory women have lower human capital
Routine household labor non-discrectionary, routine tasks that cant be postponed such as cooking and cleaning
Occasional household labor household tasks that are more time-flexible and discretionary such as household repairs and yard work
Family work at home. Who does what? men perform more occasional labor but women do 3x more housework than men if married
Time availability perspective of household labor suggests that the division of labor is determined by the need for household labor such as the number of children and each partners availibility to perform household tasks
Relative resource perspective of household labor the greater the relative amount for value of resources contributed by a partner, the greater the power in the relationship
The "second shift" unpaid housework that a wife does after her paid employment
Politics methods and tactics intended to influence government policy, attitudes and activities
Government the formal agency that exercises power and control society, the ability to create and enforce laws
Dictatorship political power in concentrated into the hands of a few (or one) elites who control resources
Monarchy a government rules by a king or queen with the succession of rulers kept within the family
Democracy a political system in which all citizens have the right to participate
Authority the legitimate, non coercive exercise of power
Domination by authority the willing obedience of the ruled to the commands of legitmate authority
Coercion implicit threat of physical force
Paradox of authority the state's authority is derived from an implicit threat of physical force, however, when the state must use force, they are stripped of authority
Citizenship rights the rights guaranteed to each law abiding citizen in a nation-state
Civil Rights guaranteeing a citizen's personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely
Political rights guaranteeing a citizen's ability to participate in politics
Social Rights guaranteeing a citizen's protection from the state
Branches of government executive- president legislative-congress and senate judicial- supreme court
Pluralist model a wide variety of individuals and groups have equal access to resources and power
the power elite a small group of people in the top ranks of economic, political, and military institutions make decisions for the larger populations
the civic volunteerism model an individual is more likely to vote if they feel strongly about a particular political issue and/or have a strong political orientation
Education the process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools both general and specific are transmitted to individuals
Tracking the placement of students into educational "track" or programs of study that determine the types of classes students have
Hidden Curriculum the nonacademic and less over socialization functions of schooling
Social capital the info, knowledge of people and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks
Cultural Capital the symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations
Symbolic interactionalism of inequality in education teachers attitudes of student unintentionally influence the students performance
Conflict theory of inequality in education larger social inequality has an effect of education within school systems, schools, and classrooms
Structural Functionalism of inequality in education inequality in education is preperation for occupational inequalities later in life; class inequalities
Credentialism an overemphasis on credentials for signalling social status or qualifications of jobs
Meritocracy status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and acheivement
SATs and sociological research prediction of a student's potential for college. research has proven that it does not predict college outcomes about high school GPA and class rank, and there are racial inequalities
Religion any institutionalized system of shared beliefs and rituals that identify a relationship with the sacred the profane
Belief a proposition of idea held on the basis of faith
Ritual a practice based on religion
Sacred the holy, divine, or supernatural
Profane ordinary
Structural Functionalism approach to religion shapes everyday behaviors by providing morals, values, and norms, gives meaning to human life, provides the opportunity for social connection
Conflict theory approach to religion religion perpetuates inequality (macro)
Symbolic Interactionism approach to religion how religion is incorporated into everyday life (micro)
Extrinsic Religiosity a person's public display of commitment to a religious faith
Intrinsic Religiosity a person's inner religious faith with a personal relationship to the divine
Fundamentalism emphasizing literary interpretation of texts
Evangelical conservative christians who emphasize converting others to their faith
Unchurched those who consider themselves spiritual rather than religious
Secular nonreligious, does not endorse any religion
Collective action takes place in group and diverges from the social norms of the situation
Mass Collective action action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation
Emergence the first stage of a social movement, occurring when the social problem being addressed is first identified
Coalescence the second stage of a social movement, in which resources are mobilized around the problems outlined in the first stage
Routinization the final stage of social movement, in which it is institutionalized and a formal structure develops to promote the cause; the clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making
What is the aim of all social movements? change society
What do sociologists mean when they talk about social change? transformations in social institutions, political organizations, and cultural norms across time
The causes of social change demographics, politics, culture
Alternative social movement seek the most limited societal change and often target a narrow group of people
Redemptive social movement target specific groups but advocate for more radical change in behavior
Reformative social movement advocate for limited social change across an entire society
Revolutionary social movement advocate the radical reorganization of society
Created by: sbm4175
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