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Ch 5 Heredity

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offsprings
genetics the study of how traits are passed on/inherited
Gregor Mendel Father of modern genetics. An Austrian monk who studied pea plants to learn how traits are passed from parents to offspring.
cross-pollination when sperm in the pollen of one plant fertilize eggs in the flower of another
self-pollination sperm from one plant fertilize the eggs of the same plant
characteristic a feature that has different forms
trait a specific characteristic (ex. height, eye color)
dominant trait the trait that always appear
recessive trait the trait that is hidden (goes away)
genes instructions for an inherited trait. offsprings have 2 sets; one from each parent
alleles different versions of a gene. Dominant alleles are given a capital letter and recessive alleles are given a lower case letter
phenotype an organisms physical appearance
genotype the combination of alleles that an organism gets from its parents/genetic makeup
homozygous a plant with 2 dominant or 2 recessive alleles
heterozygous a plant with one dominant allele and one recessive allele
incomplete dominance traits that do not blend together
Punnett square used to predict the possible genotypes of offspring from certain parents
probability the mathematical chance that something will happen
asexual reproduction only one parent is needed to produce offspring
sexual reproduction 2 parents join to form offspring
homologous chromosome a pair of chromosomes that carry the same sets of genes
sex cells cells that join to make offsprings
meiosis a copying process that produces cells with half the number of chromosomes
sex chromosomes carry genes that determine sex
pedigree a tool for tracing a trait though generations of a family
selective breeding breeding plants and animals to produce a desired trait.
Created by: swhite2015