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Bio Final (Exam 3)

clade species that share a common ancestor by as indicated by the possession of shared derived characteristics
homology existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures or genes in different species
cladistics a taxonomic technique used for creating hierarchies of organisms that represent true phylogeny and evolutionary relationships. only shared characteristics are considered informative about evolutionary relationships
derived characteristics similarity inherited from the most recent common ancestor of the entire group
ancestral characteristics similarity from before the most common ancestor of the group
homoplasy shared character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor (convergent evolution)
cladogram visual representation of a hypothesis of evolutionary history
paraphyletic a common ancestor with some of its descendants
monophyletic a common ancestor and all of its descendants
polyphyletic doesn't include the most recent common ancestor of all the organisms
parsimony the theory with the fewest assumptions is most likely to be correct
phylogeny evolutionary history of an organism, including which species are closely related
ontogeny origin and development of an organism from embryo to adult
synapomorphy derived character that is shared by clade members
symplesiomorphy alternate term for ancestral trait
ingroup the species whose evolutionary history is being studied
outgroup species which diverged before the common ancestor of the rest of the species in the clade
biological species concept species are those that can interbreed
phylogenetic species concept smallest set of organism that share an ancestor and can be distinguished from other such sets
taxonomy science of classifying living things
binomial nomenclature the system of nomenclature in which two terms are used to denote a species
domain the highest level of organization
7 properties of life made of cells require energy grow and reproduce adapted to their environment ordered complexity respond to stimuli maintain homeostasis
relative dating of fossils compare the local strata of rock, with deeper indicating older
absolute dating of fossils use the half-life of various isotopes to pin down the exact age of fossils
Miller-Urey experiment found that the early atmosphere of Earth could give rise to organic compounds
order of classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
memory trick for the orders of classification Dear king Phillip comes over for great sex
endosymbiosis mitochondria and chloroplasts used to be free bacteria which were engulfed by early prokaryotes.
cyanobacteria photosynthetic bacteria
bacterial shapes bacillus, coccus and spirillum
bacillus rod shaped
coccus sphere shaped
spirillum helical shaped
flagellum long, thread like structures which protrude from the surface of a cell and are used in locomotion
peptidoglycan component of bacteria's cell wall, consisting of carbohydrate polymers
horizontal gene transfer passage of genes between species or within a generation
nucleoid region area of a prokaryotic cell where the DNA is contained
gram positive bacteria large amounts of peptidoglycan and are turned purple by gram-staining
gram negative bacteria small amounts of peptidoglycan and turned pink by gram-staining
prokaryotes cells lacking a membrane bound nucleus and organelles
eukaryotes cells with a membrane bound nucleus and organelles
organelles areas within a cell that perform a specific function
extinction death of all individuals within a species
endemic hotspot a location in which many endemic species occur
endemic species a species which only occurs in one place
biodiversity a measure of how many different species occur in an area
introduced species a species brought to an area where it doesn't occur naturally
keystone species one which exerts an oversized influence on the ecosystem
autotroph (producer) makes it own energy
hetertroph (consumer) gets energy from other organisms
ways that people screw up the environment pollution over-exploitation habitat destruction introduction of non-native species
Created by: evan787