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Bio Final (last one)

eukaryote a cell with membranes dividing and forming organelles
protist group within the domain eukarya. cell walls are made of chitin and it is unicellular
monophyletic an ancestor and all of its descendants
choanoflagellate unicellular organisms that are most like the common ancestor of the sponges, and indeed all animals
phototroph Organisms that use the light to carry out various cellular metabolic processes
budding reproduction through one area developing into an adult
polyphletic various clades on a phylogenetic tree
paraphyletic an ancestor and some of its descendants
asexual reproduction when an organism can reproduce by itself
sexual reproduction do I really need to explain this one?
endosymbiosis the theory that certain organelles (especially mitochondria and chloroplasts) were bacteria which were engulfed and became symbionts
phagotrophs protists that ingest visible particles of food by pulling them into intracellular vesicles called food vacuoles or phagosomes.
osmotrophs Protists that ingest food in soluble form
mixotrophs protists that are both heterotrophs and autotrophs
diplomonads have two nuclei, no mitochondria, and move using flagella
parabasalids similar to diplomonads, but also use undulating membranes to move
euglenoids are often mixotroph with some at either extreme, have interlocking proteinaceous trips in a helical pattern formigna flexible pellicle
kinetoplastids unique single mitochondria in each cell. parasitism is common and it causes African sleeping sickness
dinoflagellates most are photosynthetic with two flagella. They have plates made of a cellulose-like material.
apicomplexans spore forming parasites of animals. includes plasmodium (which causes malaria)
ciliates have large numbers of cilia. contain both a micronucleus and macronuclues. micronucleus is only needed for sexual reproduction to occur
choanoflagellates unicellular organisms with a single emergent flagellum with a funnel-shaped contractile collar
groups within euglenozoa euglenoids and kinetoplastids
groups within alyeolata dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates
why are choanoflagellates of interest in evolution? they are a common ancestor of all animals
what parasite causes malaria plasmodium falciparum (a apicomplexans)
guard cells pairs of sausage shaped cells which surround stomata and control their opening and closing
turgor pressure the water pressure within plant cells
osmotic potential the tendency of water to move either into or out of an area
xylem tube used to conduct water up the plant. Made of hollow dead cells aligned end-to-end
phloem tube which transports nutrients from a source to a sink. Composed of sieve cells and sieve-tube members
stomata the holes in leaves through which oxygen, CO2, and water vapor pass
sieve tube cells with clusters of pores. The sieve areas with larger pores are known as sieve plates. When arraigned end to end, they're known as sieve tubes.
casparian strip strips which are impervious to water and force it to go through the cell membranes of the endodermis
symplast route continuum of cytoplasm between cells connected by plasmodesmata
translocation the movement of nutrients through a plant
active transport transport which requires energy
transpiration the process of water loss through the stomata of the leaves
factors which promote diffusion moisture, thin surfaces, short distance, high pressure, strong concentration gradient, large surface area
phloem loading process through which carbohydrates enter the sieve tubes in the smallest veins at the source. Passing through the sieve cell requires energy, so this is a form of active transport
cohesion sticking to itself
adhesion sticking to something else
trans-membrane route membrane transport between cells and across the membranes of vacuoles within cells
source and sink the source is where something comes from and is produced whereas the sink is where it goes and is consumed
cohesion-tension theory the leading theory to explain how water moves up tall plants. As water is lost to transpiration, more water is pulled up by cohesion, as the xylem creates an unbroken chain of water molecules through which the pull is passed
mycorrhizae fungi associated with the roots of plants which help turn various nutrients into forms which are useful for plants (nitrogen fixation)
micronutrients 7 nutrients which plants only required in trace amounts
macronutrients 9 nutrients which plants require in abundance carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulfur
essential amino acids the 8 amino acids which humans cannot synthesize and get from their diets
essential fatty acids the fatty acids which humans cannot synthesize
omnivore eats both meat and vegetables
polysaccharides large carbohydrates used for energy storage and structural componants
lipases the enzymes in the small intestine which break down lipids
nucleases enzyme which breaks down nucleic acids into nucleotides
emulsification the breakdown of fats into fatty acids and monoglycerides
ruminant animals which rechew regurgitated food. They have a multi-chambered (4) stomach
lymphatic system an open circulatory system which deals with the extra extrastitial fluid. the fluid in the lymphatic system is known as lymph
amylase the enzyme which digests starch. There is some in the mouth, and more is added by the pancreas in the small intestine
proteases enzymes which digest proteins (such as pepsin)
hiliobacter pylori bacterium which is responsible for most stomach ulcers
bile substance produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Helps with emulsification
ulcer hole in the wall of the stomach or small intestine
alimentary canal the path food travels from mouth to anus
accessory structures of the digestive system pancreas, gallbaldder, liver, and salivary glands
digestion the breakdown of food into nutrients
absorption the uptake of the nutrients freed in digestion
intracellular digestion the digestion of food within the cell, occurs in unicellular organisms and sponges
extracellular digestion digestion in a cavity outside of the cells, common in extracellular organism. That cavity can be continuous with the external environment
crop and gizzard the gizzard is a chamber in bird stomachs containing rocks which fill the role of teeth in breaking down food. The crop is a thin walled area used for temporary food storage
villi and microvilli small finger like projections which increase surface area to improve absorption
lacteals capillaries of the lymphatic system. They have a slightly bigger opening
gallbladder accessory digestive organ where bile is stored
pancreas accessory digestive organ responsible for secreting insulin and digestive enzymes
chylomicron small particles made of triglycerides and proteins which are too big to enter the blood through intestine and enter the lymphatic system instead
insulin hormone which causes glucose in the blood to be taken up and stored as glucogen
glucagon the enzyme which causes glucogen to be released into the blood as glucose
gas exchange the diffusion of gasses across a membrane
diffusion the movement of a substance from high concentration to low concentration without the use of energy
partial pressure of gasses the abundance of a gas in an area. pO2 of air=.21 atm
atmospheric pressure the pressure of air at sea level
countercurrent exchange water and blood move past each other in opposite directions in fish's gills to maximize oxygen uptake
tracheal system of insects small cuticle lined branching system which transmit gas throughout the body, with oxygen diffusing directly into cells
alveoli the small sacs where gas diffusion actually takes place in the lungs
capillaries the smallest and most thinly-walled blood vessels where diffusion actually occurs
respiratory pigment molecules which increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood (such as hemoglobin)
hemoglobin protein made of four polypeptide chains and four heme groups. At the center of each heme group is an iron atom, which can bond to an oxygen
hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve a visual representation of the amount of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen at various pO2's
gills location of gas exchange in fish (fish lungs)
lungs seriously?
larynx the voice box
trachea the windpipe
bronchi large tubes to the lungs
bronchioles the smaller branches from the bronchi
homeostasis maintaining a relatively stable condition in an internal environment
requirements of the respiratory system moisture, concentration gradient, large surface area, thin membranes, short distances
gastrovascular cavity a cavity which serves the role of both digestive system and circulatory system. Occurs in small animals such as hydra
cardiovascular system another term for the circulatory system. It allows both nutrients and waste to be transported throughout the body to where they need to be
plasma the fluid matrix of blood
hemolymph the fluid which is pumped in open circulatory systems. It is both the blood and the interstitial fluid
leucocytes white blood cells which deal with pathogens
erythrocytes red blood cells. they lack nuclei and are doughnut shaped
sinoatrial node source of the electrical stimulus responsible for a heartbeat
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) the network of fibers in the heart which conduct the depolarization wave across the ventricles
pulmocutaneous circulation breathing through the skin. Can be done by amphibians
open circulatory system one in which either there are no blood vessels or those vessels aren't a closed system. The blood mixes with the interstitial fluid and is known as hemolymph
closed circulatory system one in which the blood vessels form a closed system
path of blood through the heart vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventrical, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventrical, aortic similunar valve, aorta
role of valves in veins to keep blood moving in the correct direction. Useful for blood going against gravity
structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries endothelium, elastic layer, smooth muscle, connective tissue
6 supergroups of protists excavata chromalveolata archaeplastida rhizaria ameobozoans ophisthokonts
rumination food is stored in the rumen to be digested by bacteria and protists. the food is then regurgitated for rumination. it is then swallowed again and digested for real
Created by: evan787