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Stress force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Tension pulls on the crust, stretches rock causing it to become thinner in the middle
Compression squeezes and pushes rock together until it folds or breaks
Shearing pushes two masses of rock in two opposite directions, can cause masses of
Faults most faults occur along boundaries, where the forces of the plate motion push or pull the crust so much that the crust breaks
Hanging Wall rock that lies above the fault
Footwall rock that lies below the fault
Normal Faults fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault (hanging wall) while the other block lies below the fault (footwall)
Reverse Faults compression causes reverse faults. They have the same structure as a normal fault, but the blocks move in the opposite direction
Strike-slip Faults rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways, with little up or down motion
Anticline a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
Syncline a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley
Folded Mountains mountain created from bends in the rock that create anticlines and synclines
Fault Block Mountain mountain created when two normal faults cut through rock.
Plateau large area of flat land high above sea level
Earthquake shaking and trembling that results from movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface
Focus area beneath Earth’s surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering and earthquake
Epicenter point on the surface directly above the focus
P Waves first waves to appear are primary waves that compress and expand like an accordion
S Waves secondary waves that vibrate from side to side as well as up and down
Surface Waves move more slowly and can produce more ground movement
Merchalli Scale rates earthquakes according to level of damage.
Richter Scale rating of earthquakes magnitude based on the size of the earthquake’s seismic waves
Moment Magnitude Scale rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake
Seismograph device that records ground movement caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
Tiltmeters measures tilting or rising of the ground. It is similar to a carpenter’s level
Creep Meter uses a wire stretched across a fault to measure horizontal movement of the ground
Laser-ranging Devices uses a laser beam to detect horizontal fault movement
GPS Satellites can monitor changes in vertical as well as horizontal movement along faults using Earth-orbiting satellites called Global Positioning System
Liquefaction occurs when an earthquake’s violent shaking suddenly turns loose, soft soil into mud
Aftershocks an earthquake that occurs after a large earthquake in the same area. They can strike hours, days, even months later
Tsunamis water displaced by the earthquake may form a large wave
Created by: s730066