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Advanced Higher Bio

Unit 1 Signal Transduction

QuestionAnswer
What is meant by signal transduction converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response
What two hormones undergo hydrophilic signalling insulin and ADH
describe how insulin is transduced across a membrane (2 mark( insulin produced by pancreas, binds to receptors on liver/muscle/fat and changes conformation - recruiting glut 4 to membrane to convert glucose to glycogen
What transporter is recruited to the membrane in insulin signalling Glut 4
What is type 1 diabetes when then endocrine organ (pancreas) cannot produce insulin
What is type 2 diabetes 1. Insulin receptors less sensitive/Less numbers of ACTIVE receptors 2. Problems with recruiting Glut 4 to membrane
WHat is the function of Glut 4 transporter to convert glucose into stored glycogen
What cells are target tissues of insulin signalling fat/muscle/liver cells
Describe how ADH is transduced across the membrane ADH produced by pitituary gland in brain binds to ADH receptors in kidney tubule which change conformation resulting in a second messenger system that recruits AQP 2 to membrane to reabsorb water
What channel protein reabsorbs water in ADH signalling Aquaporin
Is reabsorption of water active/passive transport passive as aquaporin is a channel protein
Where is ADH produced pituitary gland (NOT brain)
what is the target tissue of ADH kidney tubules
What is the function of ADH to reabsorb water
If a person was hydrated would ADH levels go up or down down (ADH thirsty hormone)
If a person was thirsty what would the reabsorption levels be like and what effect would this have on urine reabsorption levels HIGH - urine small volume and concentrated
When is the urine large volume but dilute when a person is hydrated
What are the two features of a person's urine when they are thirsty small volume and concentrated
Name two hydrophobic signalling molecules thyroid hormone AND steroid hormones (testosterone)
Give an example of a steroid hormone testosterone/oestrogen
What is the key feature of all hydrophobic signals/ligands lipid soluble so can pass through membrane
Where are receptor molecules in hydrophobic and hydrophilic signalling hydrophobic (within nucleus receptors) hydrophilic (surface of cell membrane)
After testosterone binds to its receptor in nucleus what happens next This changes conformation of receptor resulting in it binding to gene regulatory sequences
What happens after gene regulatory sequences have been activated transcription occurs
Explain why transcription only occurs after testosterone has bound testosterone receptor is a transcription factor so only after conformational change does it bind to gene regulatory sequences to be activated
What is the function of a thyroid hormone receptor transcription factor inhibitor which is bound to DNA prevent transcription of protein Na/KATPase
Where does thyroid hormone bind to its receptor in the nucleus
where is the thyroid hormone produced pituitary gland (not brain)
what is the target tissue of thyroid hormone thyroid gland
what does thyroid hormone do increase metabolic rate by production of Na/K ATPase
what happens when thyroid hormone changes conformation of its receptor TF inhibitor breaks away from DNA allowing transcription of Na/K ATPase
When any ligand binds to a receptor what happens next conformational change in receptor
What happens after a receptor has a conformational change activate of 2nd messenger cascase e.g. phosphorylation by kinase OR activation of Gproteins/enzymes
different types of cell may show a tissue specific response to the SAME signal - true or false true
A receptor can bind any ligand false -specific ligand
Created by: kyle_academy