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Biochemistry

macromolecules, water, pH

TermDefinition
acid Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water; an acidic solution has a pH less than 7.
activation energy Minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction
active site Specific place where a substrate binds on an enzyme
amino acid Carbon compound joined by peptide bonds; monomer of proteins
atom Building block of matter; contains subatomic particles - protons, electrons and neutrons
base Substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water; a basic solution has a pH greater than 7
buffer Mixture that can react with an acid or a base to maintain the pH within a specific range
carbohydrate Organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
catalyst Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy
chemical reaction Energy-requiring process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are changed into different substances
compound Pure substance with unique properties formed when two or more different elements combine.
covalent bond Type of chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons
electron Negatively charged particle that occupies space around an atom's nucleus
element Pure substance composed of only one type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance.
enzyme Protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction
hydrogen bond Weak electrostatic bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges between a hydrogen atom and an oxygen, fluorine or nitrogen atom.
ion Atom that is negatively or positively charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons.
ionic bond Electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms
isotope Two or more atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons
lipid Hydrophobic biological molecule composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, waxes
macromolecule Large molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
molecule Compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds
monomer A molecule that may combine with other molecules to form polymers; a building block
neutron Particle without a charge in the atom's nucleus
nucleic acid Complex macromolecule that stores and communicates genetic information (DNA)
nucleotide A subunit (monomer) of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
nucleus Center of an atom
peptide Short chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
pH Measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution (how acidic or basic a solution is)
polar molecule Molecule with oppositely charged regions.
polymer Large molecule formed from smaller repeating units of identical or nearly identical compounds linked by covalent bonds.
product Substance formed by a chemical reaction; located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
protein Organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide bonds; primary building block of organisms.
proton Positively charged particle in an atom's nucleus
reactant Substance that exists before a chemical reaction starts; located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation
solute Substance dissolved in a solvent
solution Homogeneous mixture formed when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in another substance (the solvent)
solvent Substance in which another substance is dissolved
substrate Reactant to which an enzyme binds
van der Waals force Attractive forces between molecules
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase