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Cell Energy

TermDefinition
Aerobic process A metabolic process that requires oxygen
Chlorophyll A pigmented molecule that absorbs specific wavelengths of light. It gives plants and some algae their color.
Chloroplast Double-membrane organelle that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy through photosynthesis
Electron transport chain Series of compounds that move electrons along a membrane. This is coupled with the transport of protons and used to create energy.
Endosymbiotic theory Explains that eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells.
Fermentation Process after glycolysis allowing limited production of ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Glucose Widely used sugar molecule by living organisms with the formula C6H12O6 (ring structure)
Glycolysis Anaerobic process; first stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. Occurs in the cytoplasm
Granum One of the stacks of pigment-containing thylakoids in a plant's chloroplasts.
Krebs cycle Series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into CO2 inside the mitochondria; 2nd stage of cellular respiration
Light reaction Part of photosynthesis, these reactions take place in the thylakoids of the chloroplast and provide energy for the production of glucose in the next stage.
Metabolism All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Mitochondria Membrane-bound organelles that convert fuel into energy that is useable by the cell.
Photosynthesis Two-phase anabolic pathway in which the sun's light energy is converted into chemical energy (glucose).
Pigment Light-absorbing colored molecule such as chlorophyll and carotenoid in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
Stroma Fluid-filled space outside the grana in the chloroplast where the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place.
Thermodynamics Study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe
Thylakoid In chloroplasts, one of the stacked, flattened, pigment-containing membranes in which the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur.
Aerobic respiration Metabolic process in which pyruvate is broken down and electron-carrier molecules are used to produce ATP through electron transport. Occurs in the mitochondrion
Anaerobic process Metabolic process that does not require oxygen
ATP Energy-carrying biological molecule which when broken down provides energy for cellular activities.
Calvin Cycle Light-independent reactions during phase 2 of photosynthesis in which energy is stored in glucose molecules.
Carbohydrate Organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio; source of fuel/energy
Cellular respiration Catabolic pathway in which organic molecules (such as glucose) are broken down to release energy (ATP) for use by the cell.
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase