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Satterlie Test 4

For Bio Final

What are autosomes? all chromosomes except sex chromosomes
What are the sex chromosomes? XY
What is the substructure of DNA? nucleic acids
How are the nucleotides connected? covalent linkages in a double helix
What are the three parts of a nucleotide? pentose sugar phosphate group nitrogenous base
What are the purines? adenine and guanine
What are the pyramidines? thymine, cytosine and uracil
What is the AT/GC rule, and how is it modified in RNA? AT/GC
What is DNA helicase? binds to 1 strand, uses ATP energy to seperate the 2 strands and creates fork
What is DNA topoisomerase? untwists the stands ahead of the moving forks
What is DNA polymerase? brings in nucleotides and covalently bonds them to form a DNA strand
What is RNA primase? creates a primer to start replication process
How are the leading strand and lagging strand relate to DNA replication? leading- replication goes in same direction as fork is moving lagging- replication goes in opposite direction as the fork is moving
What are Okazaki fragments and how are they involved in DNA replication? short fragments made in the 5' to 3' direction which is opposite the direction of the fork formation
What is chromatin? DNA + protein
What is a nucleosome? protein class called histones- DNA wraps around nucleosomes to form a repeating structure
What is heretochromatin? highly compacted region of chromosomes
What is euchromatin? less condensed chromosomes
What are the two major steps in gene expression? Transcription and translation
What is the product of a structural gene? proteins
What are the two main products of non-structural genes? tRNA
What happens in Transcription? What are the three steps? 1. initiation 2. elongation 3. termination
Compare the Initiation phase of Transcription in bacteria and eukaryotes RNA polymerase has to bind to promoter region
How is RNA polymerase involved in the elongation phase in transcription? slides along the DNA strand and starts forming the RNA transcript
How is the template strand involved in the elongation phase in transcription? serves as template for construction of the nRNA, will be a copy of the coding strand
How is the coding strand involved in the elongation phase in transcription? AT/GC rule changes to AU/GC
How is U for T substitution involved in the elongation phase in transcription?
What happens in the Termination phase of Transcription? when RNA polymerase reaches it the new RNA strand is released
What is an intron? sequences that are not intented to be translated into peptides or proteins
What is an exon? parts that are supposed to be translated
What is RNA splicing? removal of introns
What are the three important regions of an intron (for gene splicing)? 5' splice site 3' splice site branch site
How are snRNPs (snurps) involved in gene splicing? when snurps bind to these sites and to each other, it causes the intron to form a loop
What is alternative splicing and what is the advantage of doing it? can edit RNA in more than 1 way
What is an RNA cap (RNA Capping is the process)?
Why is an RNA cap necessary in gene expression?
What is a Poly A Tail, and what does it do? string of adenine nucleotides
What happens in the Translation phase of gene expression? What is the goal?
What is a codon? group of 3 nucleotides
There are 20 different amino acids but 64 different codons. Why?
What does a stop codon do in Translation?
What is tRNA and what does it look like? translator
What are the two important binding regions for tRNA and to what do they bind?
What is an anticodon? complimentary 3-nucleotide sequence for a specific codon
What is the structure of a ribosome? 2 subunits
How does translation occur in the ribosome?
What are the three stop codons that are not recognized by tRNA?
How is the “release factor” involved with a stop codon?
Why is gene regulation so much more complex in eukaryotes than in bacteria?
What are the two important genes in E. coli that are related to lactose metabolism?
When are these genes expressed?
Why is transcription the most economical place to control gene expression?
What are regulatory transcription factors?
What are the two general types of regulatory transcription factors?
What are “small effector molecules” and how do they work?
What is allolactose, and how is it involved in gene regulation in E. coli? small effector molecule that induces lac operon
What is an operon? more than one gene activated by a single promoter
What is an example of how gene regulation works in bacteria? (lac operon in e.coli)
When both glucose and lactose levels are high in E. coli, will the lac operon be transcribed? transcription of lac operon will be low because CAP does not activate a high level of transcription
When lactose is high and glucose is low will the lac operon be transcribed? transcription of lac operon will be high because CAP is bound to the CAP site to increase transcription and repressor is fully bound with allolactose which means it doesn't bind to DNA
When lactose is low and glucose is either high or low, will the lac operon be transcribed? transcription of lac operon will be low because the lack of allolactose. glucose levels do not matter
Which elements make up the core promoter in eukaryotes? TATA box and transcriptional start site
What is a TATA box? 5'-TATAAA-3'
What will happen if the TATA box is missing? transcription is erratic
What is the relationship between the regulatory elements (proteins = activators and repressors) and enhancers and silencers in the DNA strand? without activators or repressors, the core promoter will produce a basal level of transcription
What does GTF stand for? general transcription factors
What is the specific role of the “mediator”? serves as an intermediate between the preinitiation complex and activators and repressors
How does RNA polymerase work with activators and repressors to initiate transcription?
How do the RTFs work with the activators and repressors to initiate transcription?
How does the mediator work with the activators and repressors to initiate transcription?
How is modification of chromatin structure used as an additional means of controling gene expression?
What are the three ways chromatin is altered to allow transcription to proceed bind and change the location of nucleosomes, dislodge histone complexes-create gaps, replaces histones with histone variants
What is DNA methylation and how is it involved in control of gene expression? silences transcription-dna methylase-adds methyl groups to cytosine bases
Cell cycle of eukariotic cells
What is a cell cycle checkpoint?
Where to the primary checkpoints occur? middle of g1, toward the end of g2, metaphase
Why are checkpoints there? g1-to check for DNA damage g2-checks for proper proteins for m phase metaphase-prevents incorrect chromosome sorting
How are cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases involved in checkpoint function? responsible for the allowing of going through a checkpoint
What is monitored at the first (G1) checkpoint? DNA damage
What is monitored at the second (G2) checkpoint? DNA damage and proper proteins for m phase
What is monitored at the third (metaphase) checkpoint? integrity of spindle apparatus
What are the options available if a checkpoint determines there is a problem?
What are the four types of point mutations in DNA? silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift
Why are DNA mutations not always bad?
What happens if a mutation occurs in a non-coding region?
What is the difference between spontaneous and induced DNA mutations? spontaneous mutations are rare
What is a mutagen? environmental agents that alter the structure of DNA
What are some examples of mutagens? chemicals, radiation, UV radiation
What is cancer? uncontrollable cell growth
What is a carcinogen? cancer causing chemical
What are some examples of carcinogens? cigarette smoke
If a mutation occurs in a somatic cell, it has a different outcome than if the mutation occurs in a germ cell. What is the difference?
What is an oncogene? gene in which mutation causes out of control cell division
What are tumor-suppressor genes and how do they work? found in the cell cycle to prevent oncogenes
Created by: sbm4175