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Study Guide 2

For Bio Final

What are the key characteristics of prokaryotic cells? no membrane around the nucleus or membrane bound organelles, permeable, cell wall outside of plasma membrane
What are the key characteristics of eukaryotic cells? cytoplasm is compartmentalized- membrane systems, organelles
What are the three primary elements of the cytoskeleton? microtubles, intermediate filaments, actin filaments
What is a motor protein? use ATP energy to change shape
What are the three types of motor proteins discussed in class, and what are they used for? Myosin- muscle contraction Kinesin- carry 'cargo' and walk along microtubles while changing shape and using ATP energy Dynein- attached to microtubles, help microtubles slide past each other, produce bending movements in the cilia or flagella
What is the internal structure of a cilium (or a flagellum)? 9 doublets and 2 central tubules
What is the structure of a nucleus? genetic material surrounded by nuclear envelope (has pores)
What is the nucleolus? assembly of ribosome subunits
What is the structure and function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? presence of ribosomes, protein synthesis sorting of proteins for transport. attaches carbs to proteins and lipids
What is the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? synthesis of lipids, production of phospholipids, carb metabolism, detoxification of toxins
What is a ribosome and what does it do? site of protein synthesis
What is the structure and function of the Golgi Apparatus? series of membrane bound discs with vescicles. packaging center-fills vescicles. protein processing and protein sorting
Describe the components of the Secretory Pathway produced in the ER, sent to Golgi, processed and packaged in vesicles, sent to plasma membrane, release from cell by exocytosis
What is lysosome and what does it do? digestive organelle that contains acid hydrolases
What is a peroxisome and what does it do? help break down organic molecules and hydrogen peroxide
What is the structure of a mitochondrion and what does it do? inner membrane, outer membrane, matrix. powerhouse of the cell
What is the structure of a chloroplast and what does it do? inner membrane, outer membrane, stroma, thylakoid, granum
What is a plastid? any of a class of small organelles, such as chloroplasts, in the cytoplasm of plant cells, containing pigment or food.
What are the three types of plastids? chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts
What is glycolysis? the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
What is Pre-Citric Acid Cycle? An aerobic reaction that changes 2 pyruvic acids to 2 acetates that have 2 carbons each. NAD gets reduced.
What is the Citric Acid Cycle? Aerobic reaction that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
What is Electron Transport? How ATP is made
What is an electrochemical gradient? How does it differ from a simple concentration gradient? An inward force rather than an outward force
Why is oxidative phosphorylation another name for electron transport (in the mitochondria)? ATP is synthesized from ADP and phosphate in the matrix of the mitochondria
In electron transport, the transport of electrons through the various intermediates releases energy.What is this energy used for? to create ATP
What is the chemiosmotic theory? relates to the electrochemical gradient for protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane
What is ATP synthase and what does it do? Why is it considered a backwards ATPase pump? protein complex that makes the ATP using the energy from the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane (electrochemical gradient)
What are the four conformational states in ATP synthase and what happens in each one? 1. ADP and P bind 2. ADP and P are joined to make ATP 3. ATP released 4. return to original shape
How many ATPs are produced DIRECTLY in electron transport (per glucose)? 34
How many ATPs are produced in the mitochondria? 36
How efficient is the trapping of energy from the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water?
What is lactic acid and how is it related to anaerobic breakdown of glucose? Acid formed in muscles when working out. Require energy production faster than our bodies can adequately deliver oxygen. In those cases, the working muscles generate energy anaerobically. This energy comes from glycolysis
Why would a cell that is designed to go anaerobic have large glycogen deposits? fuel, save from fatigue
How many ATPs do we get per glucose when the cell goes anaerobic? 2
Can we break down fats anaerobically? No. Two carbon chains can go into the CAC box, which is aerobic. The glycerol backbone can go in to the PCAC box which is also aerobic. NONE of these parts go in to the glycolysis box; the only box that does not require oxygen
How do we break down proteins? Separate it Deaminate it Pyruvic acids are given off
Created by: sbm4175