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Cell Unit

TermDefinition
cell Basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.
cell theory States that (1) organisms are made up of one or more cells; (2) cells are the basic unit of life; (3) all cells come only from other cells.
plasma membrane Flexible, selectively permeable boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell.
eukaryotic cell A cell or unicellular organism with membrane bound nucleus and organelles; generally larger and more complex.
nucleus The central membrane-bound organelle that manages cell function and contains DNA in eukaryotic cells
organelles Specialized internal cell structures that carry out specific cell functions such as protein synthesis or energy production.
prokaryotic cell Microscopic, unicellular organism without a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.
selective permeability Property of the plasma membrane that allows it to control movement of substances into or out of the cell
phospholipid bilayer Plasma membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar heads facing the outside and nonpolar tails facing the inside.
transport protein Protein that moves substances or wastes through the plasma membrane
fluid mosaic model A plasma membrane with components constantly in motion, sliding past one another within the lipid bilayer
cytoplasm Semifluid material inside the cell's plasma membrane
cytoskeleton Supporting network of protein fibers that provide a framework for the cell
nucleolus The site of ribosome production within the nucleus
ribosome Simple cell organelle that manufactures protein
endoplasmic reticulum Highly folded membrane system in eukaryotic cells that is the site for protein and lipid synthesis
golgi apparatus Flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into vesicles and transports them to other organelles or out of the cell.
vacuole Membrane-bound vesicle for temporary storage of materials such as food, enzymes and wastes.
centriole Organelle that plays a role in cell division and is made of microtubules
lysosome Vesicle that uses enzymes to digest excess or worn-out cellular substances
chloroplast Double-membrane organelle that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy through photosynthesis
mitochondrion (mitochondria) Membrane-bound organelle that converts fuel into energy (ATP) that is available to the rest of the cell.
cell wall The rigid barrier that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane that provides support and protection (plants, fungi and prokaryotes)
cilium (cilia) Short, hairlike projection that functions in cell movement
flagellum (flagella) Long, tail-like projection with whip-like or propeller motion that helps a cell move.
diffusion Net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
dynamic equilibrium Condition of continuous, random movement of particles but no overall change in concentration of materials
facilitated diffusion Passive transport of ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane by transport proteins
osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
hypotonic solution A solution that has a lower concentration of solute outside than inside the cell, causing water to flow into the cell by osmosis
isotonic solution A solution with the same concentration of water and solutes as inside a cell, resulting in no net movement of water.
active transport Energy-requiring process by which substances cross the plasma membrane against a concentration gradient
hypertonic solution A solution that has a higher concentration of solute outside than inside a cell causing water to leave the cell by osmosis.
endocytosis Energy-requiring process by which large substances from the outside environment can enter a cell.
exocytosis Energy-requiring process by which a cell expels wastes and secretes substances at the plasma membrane
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase