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SLS Bio11 Evolution JH

Complementary Base Pairing There are four different kinds of nucleotides that make up DNA, each of them with one of four possible bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). As strings of words consisting of combinations of just 4 letters: A, C, G and T.
Convergent Evolution In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches.
Divergent Evolution The accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species,
Deoxyribonucleic Acid A nucleic acid; alongside proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids compose the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.
Double Helix The structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Evolutionary Change Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species
Gene Flow In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another.
Genetic Drift The change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Gradual Change Model species tend to accumulate changes fairly steadily. punctuated equilibrium: species tend to stay about the same for a while, then change very rapidly.
Mutation a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Natural Selection Natural selection is one of the basic mechanisms of evolution, along with mutation, migration, and genetic drift.
Nitrogenous Base A nitrogenous base is simply a nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base.
Non-Random Mating This occurs when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible pairs of individuals. The individuals are just as likely to mate with distant relatives as with close relatives
Punctuated Equilibrium Model A theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record they will become stable, showing little net evolutionary change for most of their geological history
Speciation The formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone an important stuctural component of DNA. It consists of 5-carbon deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups. These sugars are linked together by a phosphodiester bond, between carbon 4 of their chain, and a CH2 group that is attached to a phosphate ion.
Created by: jhalse