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Amber Keys SFS A1 Biology Finals Review

What are the 8 Characteristics of Life? Made of one or more cells, Grows and Develops, Uses Energy-metabolism, Maintains homeostasis, Reproduce, Respond to Stimuli, Ada
Why do scientists write formal lab reports? To convey results of a lab for other scientists to use.
What are the steps in the scientific method? Recognize/Research Problem, Form a Hypothesis, Experiment, Collect Data, Conclusion
What is the difference between resolution and magnification? Resolution: how clearly you see an object under a microscope Magnification: how big the object is under a microscope
What is the difference between Passive and Active transport? Passive: doesn't use energy Active: uses energy
Diffusion: particles distribute evenly within a solution without using energy
Osmosis: diffusion of water molecules from high to low concentration
Facilitated Diffusion: transport proteins allow specific molecules to flow through without energy
Endocytosis: entering the cell
Exocytosis: exiting the cell
Photosynthesis: process of autotrophs making food
Cellular Respiration: getting energy; breaking down food for energy
Fermentation: anaerobic respiration
How many types of asexual reproduction are there and what are they? 3; binary fission, budding, fragmentation
Chromosomes: storage units of genes; contains all of your genetic and hereditary information
Gene: a segment of DNA
Centromere: point where chromatids are attached
Chromatids: one of the exact copies of DNA in a chromosome
Diploid: normal amount of genetic material
Haploid: half the amount of genetic material
Zygote: two sex cells
Autosomes: a "non-sex" chromosome
Sex Chromosomes: the two chromosomes that determine a individual's sex
Homologous Chromosomes: two chromosomes that are identical
Mutations: changes in DNA that affect genetic information
Cancer: uncontrolled cell division
How does Mitosis differ from Meiosis? Meiosis: cells go through two divisions Mitosis: cells go through one division
Interphase: 90% of cell cycle is spent here; cell doing "everyday" job; replicates DNA
Prophase: chromatin condenses into chromosomes; centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell; spindle fibers begin to form
Metaphase: chromosomes line up along middle of cell; spindle fibers attach to chromosomes
Anaphase: chromatids separate at centomere's end; spindle fibers shorten and pull chromatids apart; spindle fibers break down
Telophase: chromosomes arrive at opposite ends of cell; two nuclei form
Cytokinesis: cytoplasm and organelles move to opposite sides of cell; cytoplasm divides (animal cells form a cleavage furrow; plant cells form a new cell plate)
Oogenesis: female sex cell reproduction(eggs); one large & three polar bodies; cytoplasm divides unevenly; produced in ovaries
Spermatogenesis: male sex cell reproduction(sperm); produced in testes of males;
Gregor Mendel: father of genetics; used pea plants to study patterns of inheritance
P: parent generation
F1 first generation
F2 second generation
Alleles: form of a gene; can be dominant or recessive; each organism receives one allele from each parent
Dominant Allele allows a trait to be expressed while hiding other alleles; shown with capital letter
Recessive Allele: allele that gets masked by a dominant allele for the same trait; shown with lowercase letter
Homozygous: both alleles are the same
Heterozygous: two alleles for the same trait are different; hybrid
Genotype: combination of alleles or genes
Phenotype: physical appearance of alleles or genotypes
Incomplete Dominance: a blending between a recessive and dominant allele
Codominance: both alleles are dominant and seen at the same in the heterozygous condition
Non-disjunction: an abnormal amount of chromosomes
Karyotypes: method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size and type; used for diagnosing chromosomal abnormalities and determines sex of the baby
Mutation: when a portion of a chromosome is damaged or missing
How do mutations occur? it can be inherited from parent to child; acquired from environment; mistake when DNA is copied
Created by: keysa