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Higher Unit 2

Higher Unit

Function of PCR amplify DNA
Why cool to 60 degrees in PCR primer attaches to DNA template
Why heat to 90 degrees in PCR DNA denatures to seperate strands
Why heat to 70 degrees in PCR DNA polymerase replicates DNA by adding free DNA nucleotides to 3 end
1st stage of DNA replication Double helix of DNA unwinds
2nd stage of DNA replication H bonds break between bases
3rd stage of DNA replication primer attaches to lead and lag strand at 3 end
4th stage of DNA replication DNA polymerase adds free nucelotides to 3 end
5th stage Of DNA replication lag strand replication in fragments, lead strand replicated continuously
6th stage of DNA replication ligases seals DNA fragments together
role of DNA polymerase adds free DNA nucelotides to 3 end
Role of ligase in DNA polymerase joins lag fragments
what type of speciation occurs from geographic barriers allopatric
what type of speciation occurs from behavioural barriers sympatric
what type of speciation occurs from ecological barriers sympatric
what are areas where closely related species interbreed hybrid zones
how are hybrids removed from gene pool natural selection
what is a practical application of PCR forensics/paterntity tests
2 roles of stem cells mitosis and differentiation
what is differentiation turning genes on or off to make specific protein
advantage of differentiation saves ATP
unspecialised cells of plants meristem
unspecialised cell in animals stem
2 types of stem cell adult and embryo
ethical issue of stem cells destroys embryo
3 domains of life bacteria archaea and eukaryoate
we all derive from a ... common ancestor
types of graphs for studying evolution phylogenetics and molecular clocks
therapeutic use of stem cells grow organs from stem cells for transplant OR inject stems cells which specialises into pancreas cells to treat diabetes
why undertake stem cell research to learn more about differentiation/mitosis OR to learn more about diseases or for drug testing by using model cells
how can DNA be transferred vertical or horizontal
which technique is faster to transfer DNA horizontal
transferring DNA from parent to offspring is termed vertical gene transfer
what type of vertical gene transfer offers variety sexual
what is meant by antiparallel in DNA one strand 5' to 3' other strand 3' to 5'
what direction does DNA replication occur 5' to 3'
What does a eukaryote have that prokaryotes do not have nucleus
what are the two components of the backbone of DNA deoxyribose and phosphate
what enzyme replicates DNA DNA polymerase
Why must DNA polymerase be heat tolerant present which DNA is denatured at high temperatures/90 degrees and does not denature
What are the short pieces of DNA used to start DNA replication primers
what is stage one of making a protein called transcription
what is stage two of making a protein called translation
name a post translational modification add phosphate/carbohydrate or cut and combine protein
what type of organism undergo post translational modification only eukaryotes (why yeast is a better vector than bacteria)
Name the enzyme involved in synthesis of primary transcript RNA polymerase
Name a role of RNA polymerase unwinds double helix or breaks hydrogen bonds between bases or adds free RNA nucleotides to primary transcript
what is the role of mRNA takes code from nucleus to ribosome
what is the genome all heriditory information contained in DNA
what are non coding regions called introns
what are coding regions called exons
Name a role of introns transcribed but not translated OR regulates transcription
A role of tRNA is to bind to a specific AA or takes AA to ribosome
DO tRNA molecules have codons or anticodons anticodons
Name the three gene mutations deletion insertion and subsitution
what is a frameshift mutation affects all AA after mutation
what type of gene mutations are frameshift deletion and insertion
what is a gene mutation random change to base sequene
what is a chromosome structure mutation random change to sequence of GENES on chromosome
what are the 4 types of chromosome structure mutation duplication translocation inversion and insertion
what is non disjunction when all spindle fibres fail during cell division (not mitosis)
what is a polyploidy plant has at least one extra set of chromosome (3n, 4, or 5n)
what Is hybrid vigour when hybrid is disease resistant/produces increased yield
what type of chromosome structure can be advantageous in terms of evolution duplication
how using bioinformatics be used to work out how related two species are look at DNA base sequence/sequence data and the more similar the sequence the more related the two species
Created by: kyle_academy
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