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Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
What is the positive feedback for human milk let down? The positive feedback is when the baby triggers tiny nerves in the nipples or changes its sucking pattern which produce more of the hormones Oxytocin and Prolactin.
What is the negative feedback for human milk let down? the negative feedback is when the baby stops sucking the nipple and the hormones Oxytocin and Prolactin stop being produced.
What is a food chain? a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.
What is an example of a food chain? Sun/ground - Cabbage - rabbit - wolf - bear - human - ground
What is a Trophic level? A Trophic level is the level an organism is on the food chain.
What is the trophic level of the rabbit in this food chain? Sun/ground - Cabbage - rabbit - wolf - bear - human - ground Level 3 or tertiary level.
What is the cause of Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 Diabetes is caused when the body is unable to produce insulin, causing the glucose in the blood to not be produced into glycogen
What is the cause of Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 Diabetes is caused when the body becomes resistant to the insulin produced. This can occur through the insulin not triggering the receptors to take out the glucose or the receptors are triggered, but they just don't work.
What is the Stimulus when glucose concentration falls? Stimulus: Blood glucose concentration falls below the normal levels
What is the Receptor when glucose concentration falls? Receptor: Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated.
What is the Corrective Mechanism when glucose concentration falls? Corrective Mechanism: Islets of Langerhans secretes more Glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles.
What happens after the Corrective Mechanism when glucose concentration falls? Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters the bloodstream. Blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases. Blood glucose concentration returns to normal.
What sends the negative feedback when glucose concentration falls? When the blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases it sends negative feedback to the receptor.
What is the stimulus when regulating the body temperature on a hot day? Blood and skin temperatures rise
What is the receptor when regulating the body temperature on a hot day? Temperature receptors in skin and hypothalamus of brain stimulated
What is the corrective mechanism when regulating the body temperature on a hot day? Vasodilation of arterioles, Increased production of sweat, increased rate of breathing, and the metabolic rate decreases.
What is the negative feedback when regulating the body temperature on a hot day? When the body temperature decreases it sends negative feedback to the receptor.
What happens after the corrective mechanism is produced when regulating the body temperature on a hot day? Increased heat loss and reduced heat production. Then, body temperature decreases, then blood and skin temperatures return to normal.
What is the stimulus when regulating the body temperature on a cold day? Blood and skin temperatures decrease.
What is the receptor when regulating the body temperature on a cold day? Temperature receptors in skin and hypothalamus of brain stimulated
What is the corrective mechanism when regulating the body temperature on a cold day? Vascoconstriction of arterioles near skin's surface, decreased production of sweat, metabolic rate increases, and shivering.
What happens after the corrective mechanism is produced when regulating the body temperature on a cold day? Decreased heat loss and increased heat production. Then, body temperature increases. After that, blood and skin temperatures return to normal.
What is the negative feedback when regulating the body temperature on a cold day? When the body temperature increases it sends negative feedback to the receptor to stop.
What is the stimulus when the water potential of blood increases above the norm? Water potential of blood increases above the norm.
What is the receptor when the water potential of blood increases above the norm? Hypothalamus in brain detects stimulus.
What is the corrective mechanism when the water potential of blood increases above the norm? Pituitary gland releases less anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
What happens after the corrective mechanism is produced when the water potential of blood increases above the norm? More water is excreted and urine produced is more dilute. Then, water potential of blood decreases. After that, water potential of blood returns to normal.
What is the negative feedback when the water potential of blood increases above the norm? When the water potential of blood decreases it sends negative feedback to the receptor to stop.
What is the stimulus when the water potential of blood decreases below the norm? The water potential of blood decreases below the norm.
What is the receptor when the water potential of blood decreases below the norm? Hypothalamus in brain detects stimulus.
What is the corrective mechanism is produced when the water potential of blood decreases below the norm? Pituitary gland releases more anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
What happens after the corrective mechanism is produced when the water potential of blood decreases below the norm? More water is reabsorbed by kidney tubules. Then, less water is excreted and urine produced is more concentrated. After that, the water potential of blood increases. Finally, the water potential of blood returns to normal.
What is the negative feedback when the water potential of blood decreases below the norm? When the water potential of blood increases it sends negative feedback to the receptor to stop.
What is the stimulus when there is too much calcium in the blood? The Calcium levels are too high.
What is the receptor when there is too much calcium in the blood? Thyroid gland releases Calcitonin.
What is the corrective mechanism when there is too much calcium in the blood? Increases Calcium deposition in bones, decreases Calcium uptake in intestine, decreases Calcium reabsorption from urine.
What happens after the corrective mechanism is produced when there is too much calcium in the blood? Calcium levels fall. Then, the calcium levels return to normal.
What is the negative feedback when there is too much calcium in the blood? When the calcium levels fall, it sends negative feedback to the receptor to stop.
What is the stimulus when there is too little calcium in the blood? The Calcium levels are too little.
What is the receptor when there is too little calcium in the blood? The parathyroid gland releases PTH (parathyroid hormone)
What is the corrective mechanism when there is too little calcium in the blood? Increase Calcium release from bones, Increases Calcium uptake in intestines, and increase Calcium reabsorption from urine.
What happens after the corrective mechanism is produced when there is too little calcium in the blood? Calcium levels rise, and the calcium levels return to normal.
What is the negative feedback when their is too little calcium in the blood? When the calcium levels rise, it sends negative feedback to the receptors to stop.
What is an endocrine disruptor? Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with the endocrine (or hormone) system. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders.
What are some examples of endocrine disruptors? Diethylstilbestrol (the synethetic estrogen DES), dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and some other pesticides. Also, Bisphenol A (BPA), Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and Phytoestrogens.
What main gland is involved with the stress response? the Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland
What part of the nervous system does the hypothalamus interact with? The sympathetic division in the autonomic nervous system, it is also called the fight or flight response
Explain the physiological changes that occur when the hypothalamus stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and stress is produced.(Homeostasis) Signal is sent to hypothalamus then to to the sympathetic division Body shunts blood from skin/digestive organs to muscles Also starts to provide more fuel through the production of glucose. ACTH is released/stimulates adrenal glands & produce cortisol.
Why is physical exercise often suggested if you experience an abundance of stress? Because when you exercise you burn off all that extra glucose that was produced and ACTH.
What is an isotonic solution? An isotonic solution is one in which the concentration of solutes is the same both inside and outside of the cell.
What is a hypotonic solution? A hypotonic solution is one in which the concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside of it,
What is a hypertonic solution? a hypertonic solution is one where the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside it.
What causes goiter? It can be caused by producing too many hormones or not enoguth in the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. Thyroid cancers, Iodine deficiency Graves' stimulates the gland to be overly active
What is signal transduction? Signal transduction is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior. Signals received by cells must be transmitted well into the cell to ensure an appropriate response. This step is initiated by cell-surface receptors.
What is the purpose of the body’s use of signal transduction? The purpose of signal transduction, is so that humans can get the signals from different hormones, without actually letting it in the cell, because if this were not to happen, then it would be a lot easier for a virus or bacteria to invade the cell.
What hormones do the thyroid gland produce and what do they do? Triiodothyornine and Thyroxine (stimulates and maintain metabolic processes) Calcitonin (lowers blood calcium level)
What does the hormone estrogen do? Stimulates the growth endometrium, and maintains of female secondary sex characteristics.
What does the hormone testosterone do? Produces sperm and develops/maintains male secondary sex characteristics.
What does the hormone FSH do? Stimulates production of ovum & sperm
What does the hormone LH do? Stimulates ovaries & testes
What hormones do the testes produce and what do they do? Testosterone: Produces sperm and develops/maintains male secondary sex characteristics.
What does the hormone Prolactin (PLR) do? Stimulates milk production and secretion.
What does the hormone Glucagon do? From the pancreas: Increases blood sugar by transfer glycogen back into glucose.
What does the hormone insulin do? decreases blood sugar by transferring glucose into glycogen
What hormones do the ovaries produce and what do they do? Estrogens (stimulates the growth of endometrium and maintains female secondary sex characteristics.) Progesterone (maintains endometrium)
What does the hormone progesterone do? Maintains endometrium
What hormones do the posterior pituitary gland produce and what do they do? Oxytocin (stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells) ADH (promotes retention of water by kidneys)
What hormones do the anterior pituitary gland produce and what do they do? Growth hormone, (stimulates growth (bones) and metabolic functions) PRL, (stimulates milk production and secretion) FSH, (stimulates production of ovum & sperm) LH, (stimulates ovaries & testes) TSH, (stimulates thyroid gland) ACTH.
What does the hormone ACTH do? From pituitary gland, stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.
What hormones do the pancreas produce and what do they do? Insulin (decreases blood sugar by transferring glucose to glycogen) Glucagon (increases blood sugar by transferring glycogen to glucose)
What hormones do the parathyroid produce and what do they do? Parathyroid hormone (raises blood calcium level)
Created by: kaylee72sommers