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Life Sci - Chap 6

Study Guide

Explain the differences between genes and DNA? Inherited characteristics are determined by genes. DNA is the material that determines inherited characteristics, so DNA is more detailed than genes.
What is DNA? genetic material that determines inherited characteristics-present in all living things. (deoxyribonucleic acid)
List the four nucleotides of DNA. Adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine
List the four nucleotides of RNA. adenine, uracil, cytosine and guanine
Which pair of nucleotides pair with each other in DNA? adenine and thymine (A T), and cytosine and guanine (C G)
Which pair of nucleotides pair with each other in RNA? adenine and uracil; and cytosine and guanine AU, CG
Sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base is called? A nucleotide
Who is the founder of the modern DNA model? Watson and Crick
Who discovered the nitrogenous bases of DNA? Erwin Chargaff
Who was the first to take an image of DNA? Rosiland Franklin
What is the modern description of DNA? (What does it look like?) a double helix (twisted ladder)
The sides of DNA are made of? Alternating sugar parts and phosphate parts
Where is DNA found in the cell? In the nucleus
Explain the difference between RNA and DNA? RNA (one side copies) serves as a temporary copy of a DNA (2 sides copiesd) sequence
What is RNA? A molecule that helps make proteins (ribonucleic acid)
A group of three nitrogenous bases form what? The codes for specific amino acids
mRNA reads DNA inside the _______________ the nucleus
Strands of amino acids make up A protein molecule
Proteins are made by what organelle? ribosomes
What does mRNA do for the cell? It takes the code to the ribosome
What does tRNA stand for? transfer RNA
What does tRNA do for the cell? It translates the RNA message - eachtRNA picks up a specific amino acid creating a chain of amino acids
A change in nucleotide-base sequence of DNA is called___________ a mutation
A mutagen is a ______________ Physical or chemical agent that causes a mutation to RNA or DNA
A mutation is ____________________ change in the number, type or order of bases on a piece of DNA or RNA - caused by a mutagen.
Describe the deletion mutation. A base is left out
Describe the insertion mutation. A base is added
Describe a substitution mutation. when the wrong base is used
What are examples of common mutagens? high-energy radiation from x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, asbestos, chemicals
When scientists manipulate individual genes this is called____________? genetic engineering
What is DNA fingerprinting? identifies unique patterns in a person's DNA
Acts as chemical triggers and messengers for many of the processes within cells. (19) proteins
Created by: msparks