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Goodrich Ecosystems

Review for Vocabulary Animals and Ecosystems

Organism Any living being--ex: plants and animals
ecosystem an environment where plants and animals live--includes biotic and abiotic--ex: pond, desert, forest, etc.
biosphere the part of the atmosphere where living things can breathe--only part with oxygen--includes all biomes
parasitism living off of something else (host)--parasite benefits, host is harmed--ex: mosquitoes, head lice, fleas, ticks, etc.
food web when all of the food chains in an area are connected and form a web--shows flow of energy from one organism to another
biotic living parts of an ecosystem
abiotic nonliving parts of an ecosystem
food chain shows where the energy flows, what eats what
commensalism one organism benefits by living off another but does not harm it--ex: flies using animals as transportation or a remora fish using a shark as protection from predators
aquatic animals that live in water: ex: sharks, dolphins, water bugs
terrestrial animals that live on land: examples: dogs, cats, deer, fleas
overgrazing this happens when too many animals eat too much of the producers and it harms the ecosystem
prey an animal that gets hunted and eaten by another animal--ex: a fox hunts and eats a rabbit (prey)
predator an animal that hunts and eats other animals--ex: a fox (predator) hunts and eats a rabbit
carnivore a consumer that only eats other consumers
herbivore a consumer that only eats producers
omnivore a consumer that eats both consumers and producers
producer an organism that produces its own food through photosynthesis (plants)
consumer an organism that must get energy by eating other organisms
decomposer organisms that help break down and rot dead organisms--examples: bacteria and fungi
scavenger an animal that eats dead animals--ex: possum, vulture, crow, coyote
nonnative species an organism that does not naturally appear in an area--ex: polar bear in Arkansas
native species an organism that naturally appears in an area--ex: deer in Arkansas
communities groups of different organisms living together: example: all of the organisms that live in the Carlisle woods
population a group of the same species living together--ex: the black bears living in Carlisle
natural disaster this affects the food chains by taking animals' homes, food sources, etc.--ex: tornado
limiting factors what all living organisms need to survive: food, water, shelter, space
carbon cycle plants take in carbon dioxide, make carbon, animals eat plants, animals die, carbon goes back into the soil
carbon dioxide cycle Plants take in CO2 and release 02. Consumers do the opposite.
overpopulation too many of the same organisms living in one area--affects the limiting factors
open aquaria lid off
closed aquaria lid on
nitrogen cycle plants take in nitrogen from the soil, animals eat plants, animals die, nitrogen goes back to the soil
urban develpment building homes, factories, etc--takes animals' homes
energy pyramid the flow of energy from least amount of energy to the greatest--bottom has most energy
niche the role of an organism in its ecosystem
habitat where an animal lives
ecology the study of ecosystems (biotic and abiotic)
Created by: mrsgoodrich