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Ch. 8-10 Ap Biology

Ap Biology Cellular Energetics

What is life built on chemical reactions; transofrming energy from one form to another
What is the first law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transoformed
What do living systems need to continually acquire and transform to remain alive energy
what is free energy the energy available in a system to do work
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics Every time energy is transformed the entropy (disorder) of the universe increases
How do organisms maintain order? by coupling cellular processes
coupling cellular prcesses
What are metabolic reactions that can form bonds between molecules dehydration synthesis; synthesis; anabolic reactions; endergonic
metabolic reactions that can break bonds between molecules hydrolysis; digestion; catabolic reactions; exergonic
energy released exergonic; downhill
energy input endergonic; uphill
What does breaking down large molecules requie? an initial input of energy; activation enery
large biomolecules are stable and must absorb energy to break bonds
Why don't reactions just happen spontaneously because covalent bonds are stable
activation energy the amount of energy needed to destablize the bonds of a molcule
how does a cell get help for reactions enzymes
Organisms are? endergonic systems
What do we need energy for? synthesis; reproduction; active transport; movement; temperature regulation
What happens when there is insufficient free energy production? disease or death, decline of a population; complexity in an ecosystem
Formula of free energy ΔG = ΔH - TΔS.
change in enthalpy - = exothermic, + = endothermic
change in entropy - = entropy decrease, + = entropy increase
spontaeous reactions continue once they are initiated
non-spontaneous reactions require continual input of energy to continue
reaction that are always spontaneous/exergonic exothermic reactions that increase entropy
always non-spontaneous/endergonic endothermic reactions that decrease entropy
why do we have ATP need a short term energy storage molecule
ATP modified nucleotide that is energy
How does ATP store energy? stored energy in each PO4 bond (phosphate group attached)
What makes ATP an excellent energy donor? instability of its P bonds
How does ATP transfer energy?
What is the enzyme that phosphorlates kinase
we can't store ATP too reactive and only short term energy storage
Why do cells make ATP if it takes a lot of time chemical, mechanical and tranport work
Why to we need energy to run reactions
how do you measure metabolic rate find amount of heat loss or O2 consumes or CO2 produced
thermoregulation eat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system (insulation behavioral responses, etc...)
Where is energy stored organic molecules
Where is harvested energy stored glucose
cellular respiration catabolism of glucose to produce ATP
How do we harvest energy from fuels? digest large molecules into smaller ones; break bonds and move electrons from one molecule to another
As electrons move they carry what with them energy
how do electrons move
redox reactions coupling oxidation and reduction
oxidation loss of electron
reduction gain of electron
what releases energy as breakdown molecules redox reactions
what is the most electronegative atom in biology? oxygen
what is oxidized in respiration glucose
what is reduced in respiration oxygen
How are electrons moved in respiration electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around
anaerobic respiration glycolysis; the breaking down of glucose; in cytosol
aerobic respiration in mitochondria; pyruvate oxidation; kreb's cycle; etc
What's the point? to make ATP
glycolysis breaks down 6C glucose to 2 3C pyrvate
ATP generated glycolysis 2 ATP
How is NADH recycle to NAD+ another molecule must accept H from NADH; anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
Why is pyruvate a branching point can be used for fermentation or kreb's cycle
kreb's cycle -what happens to pyruvate oxidized to acetyl COA
kreb's cycle occurs (#) 2x for each glucose molecule
Krebs produces 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP, 6 CO2
Why glycolysis and krebs value of NADH and FADH2
ETC series of molecules built into inner mitochondrial membrane; mostly transport (integral) proteins
ETC electron tranport transport of electrons down ETC linked to ATP synthesis
chemiosmosis H atoms move across inner membrane to intermembrane space
What pulls the electrons down the ETC oxygen
each carrier more electronegative
ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP in ETC; only channel permeable to H+; powered by H+
metabolism coordination of digestion & synthesis by regulation enzyme
feedback inhibition regulation & coordination of production; self-limiting; final product is inhibitor of earlier step
where does CO2 enter into leaves stomates
Where does photosynthesis occur chloroplasts
pigment in chloroplasts chlorophyll
How does photosynthesis get energy? absorbing wavelengths of light
Created by: 3j0mk1