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Genetics vocab

Words needed to fully understand basics of genetics

TermDefinition
Heredity passing of traits from parents to offspring
Dominant strong gene, represented with capital letter (H)
Recessive weak gene, represented with lower case letter (h)
Genetics study of inheritance, started by Gregor Mendel, who studied pea plants
Heterozygous different gene combination (Rr)
Homozygous same gene combo (RR or rr)
Genotype gene possibilities inside nucleus (letter combinations)
Phenotype what trait shows on outside (% and word of trait)
Punnett Square diagram to show inherited trait possibilities
Genes sentence of genetic code, on chromosomes, determines traits
Zygotes 2 gametes join in fertilization to make organism--1 cell
Gamete sex cell
Polygenic/Multigenic Genes more than one gene controls trait
Chromosomes made of many genes (humans have 23 pairs, or 46 total)
Meiosis gamete making process, 1 cell becoming 4, steps are coil up, copy/double, split in 2, split into 4, then 2 gametes join in fertilization
Kayotyping chromosomes sucked out of nucleus, stained, lined up, checked for disorders
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, your genetic code, contains chemicals A (adenine), T (thiamine), C (cytosine), and G (guanine); 3 letter words of amino acids; the messenger carrier is RNA
Double Helix twisted ladder shape of DNA
Protein the chemical DNA code tells the cell to make this
Replication process of DNA unzips, grabs match (A grabs T, C grabs G) from cytoplasm, new matching DNA formed
Mutation change/mistake in DNA
Genome library of human chromosomes, maps out what genes and where located (traits)
DNA Fingerprinting crime solving technique, analyzes DNA, unique to you
Cloning exact copy of organism, sucks out DNA from nucleus, puts in another cell
Created by: jpeteric