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Biology: Chapter 104

Chapter 10.4 Vocabulary

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Transcription the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
Protein Synthesis the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
Ribose a five-carbon sugar present in RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA) a single-stranded RNA molecule that carries the instructions from a gene to make a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) a part of the structure of ribosomes
Transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein
RNA Polymerase an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of DNA molecule as a template
Promoter a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene
Termination Signal a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
Genetic Code the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
Codon in DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
Anticodon a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
Genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual
Created by: truongm19