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Bio 11

EVOLUTION

TermDefinition
Complementary base pairing Complementary base pairing describes the manner in which the nitrogenous bases of the DNA molecules align with each other. Complementary base pairings are also responsible for the double-helix structure of DNA.
Convergent evolution convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches.
Divergent evolution Divergent evolution is the process whereby members of a species becomes more and more different, eventually resulting in two (or more) new species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses
double helix The coiled structure of a double-stranded DNA molecule in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration. Also called DNA helix,
evolutionary change Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecule
gene flow he transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another. Migration into or out of a population may be responsible for a marked change in allele frequencies
Genetic drift Genetic drift is when chance events cause changes in frequencies of alleles in a population.
Gradual change model Gradualism is when a species slowly, but continuously evolves over a long period of time. It's usually in response to very slowly changing conditions, or conditions that produce a weak selective force
mutation a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
natural selection Genetics and traits naturally developed to help adjust an animal to its natural habitat
nitrogenous base A nitrogenous base is simply a nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. They are particularly important since they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil.
non-random mating Nonrandom mating occurs when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible pairs of individuals
punctuated equilibrium model A theory that describes an evolutionary change happening rapidly and in brief geological events in between the long periods of stasis (or equilibrium)
Speciation Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise.
sugar-phosphate backbone The sugar phosphate backbone is an important structural component of DNA. It consists of 5-carbon deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups.
Created by: hbw9999
 

 



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