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Periodic Table

Test on Atoms, their Structure, Becoming Chemically Stable, Periodic table...

Atoms -The building blocks of matter-Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Compound -A substance made of different elements
Element -A substance that can't be broken down into another substance by phisical means.-A pure substance-all the atoms have the same atomic number
Atomic Number -Number of protons in an atom
Mass number -Weight of protons and neutrons combined
Energy level -Same as energy shell-Around nucleus-Stores electrons
Valence electrons -Number of electrons in the outermost shell.
Ion -A positively or negitively charged atom-Are formed when atoms try to become stable, and lose or gain electrons
Isotope -Two or more atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Ductility -Capable of being pulled out into a long wire
Conductivity -Ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity into another object
Malleability -Capable of being shaped by a hammer
Luster -Reflectant of light
Brittle -Hardness
What is the difference btween an atom, an element, and a compound? Give examples of each. -Baisically, an atom describes an element, for example Boron-A compound is made up of more then one element (H2O for example)-
How many elements are there? Where are elements listed? -There are 118 elements-They are all on the periodic table
Are all elements found on earth?If not, explain where they can be found. -No, not all elements are found on earth.-Some are created in labs by crashing two atoms into each other to try and form a new one.
What are the different numbers in the element's box on the periodic table? What are the numbers called and what do they tell you about the subatomic particles in an atom of that element? -On top, it says the ATOMIC NUMBER-equals the number of protons (which equals the amount of electrons in a 0 charged atom)-On the bottom, it show the ATOMIC MASS-equals the protons + the neutrons-neutrons = atomic mass - atomic number
What does adding/taking away a proton in the atom change about the atom? Adding or taking away an electron? Adding or taking away a neutron? -If you +/- a proton you get a charged atom, a new name for it a new atomic number and atomic mass, and it becomes an ion-If you +/- electrons the atom becomes charged and an ion.-If you +/- a neutron, you get a new atomic mass, and an isotope.
Why is the atomic number of an element never a whole number? -Because it's an average. It takes in to consideration the isotopes too.
How do you know where to place an electron when you draw an atom? What are the rules of maximum number of electrons in a shell? -In the first shell the max electrons:2-In the 2nd, the max is 8-In the 3rd, the max is 32 BUT once there's 8 electrons in it it goes on to the next shell -The max for all the other shells is 32.
Why do atoms lose or gain electrons? What is the octet rule? -They all want to become stable-Octet rule:Once a atom has 8 valence electrons, it's stable-Atoms lose or gain electrons to only have 8 electrons and become stable.
What is an exeption to the rule? Why is that exception still chemically stable? -The exception is HELIUM-It only has 2 valence electrons-It's STILL stable because it has only one shell who's max is 2 and it has 2 so it's stable
What do Lewis structures tell you about valence electrons? How do Lewis structures help you to know what an atom has to do to become stable? -They show you how many electrons there are in an atom-If an atom is stable, there's gonna be two electrons on each side (up,down,left,right), so from that you can tell how many are missing.
Explain what contributions Mendeleev and Moseley made to the organization of the periodic table. -Mendeleev discovered the pattern to the periodic table. He put elements with similar properties in groups. He predicted elements that had not been discovered. -Moseley realized they could be placed by atomic number (Mendeleev had done it by atomic mass)
What does the word periodic mean and how does that word relate to the organization of the periodic table? -The word "periodic" means in a regular, repeated order. -That's what the periodic table is in.
List at least seven different patterns that you learned about how the periodic table is organized. -1. By number of valence electrons-2. By number of shells-3. By atomic mass-4. By atomic number
How many periods are there on the periodic table? What does a period tell you about the electrons in an atom? -There are seven periods -The number of periods is the number of shells in the atom.
What are groups? What are the names of all the different groups? -Groups refer to the columns on the periodic table. -There are alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, the boron family, the carbon Family, the nitrogen family, the oxygen family, the halogen family, noble gases, and the rare earths.
What are some of the important uses of elements in the different families? The Alkali M:soap,fertilizer,medicine Alkaline Earth M:teeth,bones Transition M:jewelery,wire,sunscreen Carbon F:coal,fuel,graphite Boron F:glass,soap Nitrogen F:matches Oxygen F:air,ozone,eggs Halogen F:photographic film Noble Gases:neon signs R
What does the group number tell you about valence electrons? -It tells you how many of them there are.
Discuss specific trends that exists in the following groups of elements: -Transition Metals (Cu, Ag, Au) -Alkali Metals -Halogens -Transition Metals: all non reactive, and will tarnish over time. They're mailable -Alkali Metals: Going down the list, it gets easier to cut them, and their melting point decreases. They all like to react with CI. They burn colorfully when in salt form.
Discuss specific trends that exists in the following groups of elements: -Halogens They're all non metals and they all change states. They're all poise nous alone, but not when combines with other compounds. All of them are colors, and they get more reactive as you go down the list. They're all used for a lot of everyday things.
What are the differences between the characteristics of metals and non metals? -Metals have LUSTER, they're conductors of heat and electricity, they're mailable and/or ductile. When they become ions, they're usually + charged.
Which elements are metals, non metals and metalloids? -Boron, Silicon, Germanium, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium, Polonium, Astatine are metalloids.
Which are the most reactive metals? The least? Which are the most reactive non metals? -The most reactive metals are the alkali metals
What is the relationship between the Lewis Structures and the family to which an element belongs? -All the elements in a familly will have have the same Lewis Structure, because they all have the same number of valence electrons.
Which element has a Lewis Structure that is different from the other elements in it's family? Why? -Helium is the only Noble gas that has only two dots around it's nucleus, as opposed to eight.
Based on the Lewis Dot Structures for each family, what type of ion does each family form? -The Alkali Metals: +1 ion -The Alkaline Earth Metals: +2 Ion-Carbon Family: +3 Ion-The Boron Family: +4 Ion or -4 Ion-The Nitrogen Family: -3 Ion-The Oxygen Family: -2 Ion-The Halogens: -1 Ion
How does our study of elements relate to the formation of the universe? How long did it take for elements to form? Why? Which were the first elements to form? Why? How did other elements form? -The first elements to form were Hydrogen and Helium, because they were the simplest. They formed 300000 years after the Big Bang.
Created by: cinnamonpeaches