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General 4

Q bank: Randomly Generated 4

QuestionAnswer
Patients with severe forms of sickle-cell anemia or thalassemia are prone to having accumulation of abundant brown pigment in macrophages of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, as well as parenchymal cells of the heart and liver. What is the pigment? Hemosiderin
What drug other than misoprostol can be used to keep the ductus arteriosus open. Alprostadil a prostaglandin E1
Mentally retarded child with seizures demonstrates multiple hamartomas of the brain, and adenoma sebaceum (perivascular angiofibromata) on his face. Diagnosis? Tuberous sclerosis
Mentally retarded child with seizures demonstrates leptomeningeal angiomatosis, nevus flammeus, and glaucoma. Diagnosis? Sturge-Weber syndrome (arteriovenous malformation); Nevus flammeus is port wine stain often of the face
What cardiac abnormality is associated with fragile X syndrome? Mitral valve prolapse and aortic root dilatation
These drugs cause tachycardia and dry mouth (xerostomia). Anticholinergic medications, such as amitriptyline (tricyclic antidepressant) used to treat clinical depression
What is Naproxen? and NSAID for mild to moderate pain
Basophilic rhomboid crystals in a painful, swollen, and red joint. Diagnosis? Pseudogout; calcium pyrophosphate crystals (If you can't remember gout or pseudogout, remember pseudogout hits the larger joints!)
What effect will carbon monoxide and anemia have on PaO2? No effect, they only influence oxygen concentration CaO2, PaO2 would however be influenced by say a right to left shunt.
Inappropriate sexual advances, deficits in memory, insight, judgement, personal appearance. Possible epileptic seizure. Over years motor findings include relaxed but expressionless facies, tremor, dysarthria, and pupillary abnormalities. Diagnosis? Neurosyphillis; FTA-ABS of CSF is diagonistic (fluorescent treponemal antibody)
What drugs are associated with hypersensitivity myocarditis? Antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, and diuretics
Mutations of genes encoding proteins of the sarcomeres, most frequently beta-myosin heavy chain can predispose to this cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
What percent of ingested salt is secreted by the kidneys? 95% the other 5% by the sweat glands
Gram negative diplococcus that is oxidase positive. N gonorrhoeae
This cranial nerve carries parasympathetic fibers responsible for constriction of the pupil. oculomotor nerve; also innervates levator palpebrae (eyelid opening) and ciliary muscle (allowing accomodation)
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and sulfa allergies should avoid what drug? Celecoxib, a NSAID that is a selective COX-2 inhibitor with a sulfa component
What test would be appropriate when candida albicans infection is suspected? Germ tube test with pseudohypha formation in animal srum
What is the Weil-Felix reaction? anti-rickettsial antibody positive for typhus, rocky mountain spotted fever and crossreactive with proteus antigen
Anemia, atrophic glossits and esophageal webs. Diagnosis? Plummer-Vinson syndrome
6 month old with sever mental retardation, microcephaly, cat-like cry, and anti-mongoloid slant to the palpebral fissures. What cardiac defect is associated with this syndrome? VSD; Cri-du-chat syndrome (deletion of short arm of chromosome 5)
Patient with malaria with recalcitrant psoriasis. What is the treatment? Atovaquone/proguanil; chloroquine, the drug of choice can worsen psoriasis (plaques on the skin and arthritic joints)
What layer is more superficial, camper fascia or scarpa fascia? Camper fascia which is fatty is more superficial than the fibrous scarpa fascia
82 yro man with right knee pain that is constant but gets worth with activity. Rounded structure on back of knee is mildly fluctuant and tender on palpation, and limits both active and passive knee flexion. Diagnosis? Popliteal cyst (Baker's cyst); enlarged semimembranous bursa
CD16 is the surface marker for what lymphocyte? NK cells
What is absent in bare lymphocyte syndrome? MHC class II necessary for APC presentation of peptides to T-helper cells; failure of CD4 helper cells education
These WBC's predominate in allergic responses. Basophils and Eosinophils
Why is that histoplasmosis is not transmitted from person to person? Because the tiny yeast are located intracellularly (particularly the reticulendothelial system in the lungs)
These structures cover most microvilli and apparently help protect these fragile structures from trauma. Glycocalyx
Microtubule-dependent ATPase that helps drive transport along microtubules. Kinesin
What diseases use ticks as a vector? Borrellia Burgderfori, Babesia, Ricktsiae (Rocky mountain spotted fever), and Francisella tularensis (although tularemia may use other vectors like mosquitos and fleas w/ strong association with animal pelts)
What nerve exits the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis and what muscles does it innervate? Superior gluteal nerve; innervates gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae
The obturator nerve exits through the obturator canal and supplies these muscles. Medial compartment; adductor longus, adductor brevis, part of adductor magnus and the gracilis
What nerve exits the greater sciatic foramen then passes through th elesser sciatic foramen? Pudendal nerve
This nerve passes through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis then splits and goes on to innervate the posterior compartment of the thigh and all of the muscles in the leg and foot. Sciatic nerve; tibial and common peroneal nerve
SR calsequestrin has what function? It actively transports calcium from the cytosol into the SR of skeletal and cardiac muscle to increase stores.
The ryanodine receptor interacts with this receptor on T-tubules to induce calcium release. dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR)
What is the difference between dizygotic and fraternal twins? The same, two zygotes, each with their own placenta and membranes resulting from double ovulation; monozygotic or identical twins share one placenta and this results from splitting of the blasomere or blastocyst.
In H. pylori infection this cytotoxic substance directly damages epithelial cells increasing permeability of the gastric mucosa. Ammonium (urease converts urea into ammonium)
Angelman syndrome is more commonly caused by uniparental disomy or deletion of the maternal chromosome 15? Deletion of maternal chromosome 15; uniparental disomy is rare
Enlarged, abscessed, lymph nodes of the groin. What is the causative organism? Chlamydia trachomatis; patient has lymphogranuloma venereum
66 yro man presents with back pain. Patient succumbs to illness and compression fractures of vertebral bodies are seen with the spongiosa filled with and replaced by tan-red tissue at autopsy. Diagnosis? Multiple myeloma; involves vertebral column, skull, ribs, pelvis, and other bones; neoplastic plasma cells expand and replace bone marrow; lytic bone pain is significant
A patient in a coma with metabolic acidosis and oxalate crystals in urine. Diagnosis? Ethylene glycol toxicity
Necrotizing vasculitis in the lungs, kidneys and nasal passages. Diagnosis? Wegener granulomatosis; cANCA positive leukocytes aids in diagnosis.
The only recessive trinucleotide repeat expansion, onset is in childhood with loss of reflexes, spasticity, exteensor plantar responses, and impaired vibration and position sense. Friedrich ataxia; patient may have staggering gait, distal muscle weakness with normal bulk and tone, and slurred speech.
Slowly progressive, muscle wasting associated with cataracts and heart conduction defects. Myotonic dystrophy
Autoimmune mediated ascending muscle weakness following a viral infection. Guillain-Barre syndrome
This placentally derived hormone can cause gestational diabetes in an otherwise healthy mother. hGH; Remember that GH is very diabetogenic and has anti-insulin effects (Decrease glucose uptake)
What will occur more accutely, subdural hematoma or epidural hematoma? Epidural hematoma; may take days to weeks for a patient to present with signs of subdural hematoma and even then symptoms appear gradually
Patient presents with muscle weakness, tachycardia, mydriasis, and elevated body temperature. Diagnosis? Botulinum toxin (decreased ACh transmission in parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions); While many parasympathetic antagonists (Atropine) or sympathomimetics (Ephedrine) can cause mydriasis, tachy, and elevated body temp, muscle weakness would be absent.
Septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis that abscess in the brain will have what radiographic appearance? Ring-enhancing lesion
White patches on the inside of the cheeks that can be easily wiped off, leaving a red, bleeding, sore surface. Diagnosis? Oral candidiasis "oral thrush"
What's the difference between schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder? In schizophreniform, symptoms have been occurring for more than one month, but less than 6
Acute intravascular hemolysis will have what effect on serum haptoglobin, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin? Decrease in serum haptoglobin, as now free hemoglobin has rapidly bound it, increased bilirubin from excess hemoglobin, but too rapidly so not enough time to conjugate it all
When making a saphenous cutdown for insertion of a cannula, an incision should be made anteriorly or posteriorly of the medial malleolus? Anterio to the medial malleolus
What is the molecule that induces the tuberculosis skin reaction? PPD purified protein derivative is of tubercullin (an outer surface protein) and mycolic acids of the organism
20 yro man falls on the basketball court and develops swollen and painful upper arm. Over next weeks area becomes more circumscribed and firm, then later evolves to a painless, hard, well-demarcated mass. What is the diagnosis? Myositis ossificans, muscle trauma progressing to fibroblastic proliferation which then ossifies; on X-ray it will appear as flocculent radiodensities surrounding a radiolucent center
Created by: rahjohnson