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Diversity Of Life: 3

A deck of flashcards for Undergraduate Study of Biology. Source: Wikipedia

QuestionAnswer
Paleodermatology "Paleo" derived from the ancient Greek word for ancient. Paleodermatology is the study of cutaneous (skin) evolution, including the evaluation of physiology, thermoregulation, and structure.
Physiology The study of normal functions of living organisms and their parts.
Thermoregulation Process of maintaining core internal temperature. It deals with high temperatures or strenuous physical activities.
Human evolution Most prominently involves the decrease of body hair and increased importance of pigmentation in the naked epidermis.
What does pigments do? Shields against the harmful effects of solar radiation.
The types of hair on human skin? Miniaturized, very fine, and short. Human skin appears naked.
Function of the Sudoriparous eccrine glands For thermoregulatory methods.
Mechanism believed to be used for thermoregulation? Panting, and saliva spreading (as shown in several marsupial species).
What is an effective heat loss mechanism? Sweating, particularly in humans as the number of eccrine sweat glands is higher with their increase of pigmentation.
Name the process of heat exchange through physical processes? Radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation.
How many eccrine sweat glands are estimated to be found in the human body and where are they highly concentrated? 2 to 4 million. They are most highly concentrated in the soles and palms.
What are the 2 major functions of the human eccrine sweat gland? It is to secrete the ultrafiltrate plasma-like precursor fluid in response to acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter). It is also to reabsorb sodium in the excess water by the duct, producing a hypotonic skin surface.
What happens to the human body in extreme conditions? Perspiration may reach several litres and the ductal reabsorption function presumes its vital role to conserve electrolytes.
Preoptic hypothalamic area It is the area where all the activity occurs such as local heating and local cooling.
Local heating It includes sweating and vasodilation.
Local cooling It includes vasoconstriction and shivering.
What did Pagel and Bodmer propose? They proposed that the decrease in hairs were to reduce parasite loads such as ectoparasites such as fleas and ticks.
Apocrine gland A "primitive" gland found the least abundant in humans as it is not an effective thermoregulator and releases a smell. This suggest that it was originally used for territorial markings or alarm reactions.
What was suggested to cause the disuse panting as a thermoregulation? The development of speech.
Sebaceous glands Produces sebum which, like aprocrine gland, only contributes to the surfactant (reduction of surface tension).
What are Laws? It is a description of mechanisms leading to something. (Inference/Induction).
Scala Naturae The ladders of nature. It is a common misconception made on human evolution.
What is Teleonomy? It is the quality of purposefulness of structures and functions in living organisms brought about by natural laws. The term derives form two Greek words, telos (end, purpose) and nomos (law), and means "end-directed" (literally "purpose-law").
Antropology The study of human culture, society and biology.
Paleoantropology The study of human biological evolution
Archeology The study of past human materials in culture.
Created by: theecloud