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Infection Control

Infections Control in Radiation Oncology Facilities

Category Terminology & Effects
Contamination presence of microorganisms on body or inanimate objects - directly or indirectly spread
Colonization microorganism is present in body and multiplying, but host is not sick = a carrier only.
Epidemiology study of disease cause and distribution
Infection reproduction of microorganisms in the human body
Disease related signs and symptoms associated with infection
Nosocomial Infection are infections acquired in the healthcare setting
Nosocomial Infection are caught by patient, healthcare worker (HCW), or visitor
Nosocomial Infection is the primary goal of epidemiology department to prevent these infections
Nosocomial Infection Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actively involved in prevention – establish standards and guidelines
Nosocomial Infection National rate of nosocomial infections is 5.7%, mostly to central venous catheters and urinary catheters
Nosocomial Infection 30-50% are preventable by small efforts, such as handwashing
Nosocomial Infection Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – formulates standards and guidelines of infection control measures.
Nosocomial Infection Institute of Medicine (IOM) – provides reports on errors and nosocomial infections.
Nosocomial Infection "Accrediting body for health care organizations" Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) now AKA The Joint Commission (TJC) – an independent, nonprofit dedicated to improving quality of care in organized health care settings.
Infection Cycle Begins with a pathogen, or infectious agent, such as bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa, or algae
Infection Cycle Pathogenecity = ability of pathogen to cause disease
Infection Cycle Virulence = severity of disease
Infection Cycle - Pathogens need a reservoir to live and reproduce in The source where the pathogen came from
Infection Cycle - Pathogens need a reservoir to live and reproduce in The Host of a person to whom the infectious agent is passed to
Infection Cycle - Pathogens need a reservoir to live and reproduce in Through transmission, the movement of agent from source to host
Transmission & Entrance Agent passes through a portal of exit, such as the respiratory or GI tract, blood, or non-intact skin and finds an entrance portal, such as skin, respiratory or GI tract, urinary tract, or a transplanted organ
If disease develops, it goes through 3 phases Incubation = time interval between exposure and appearance of symptoms Clinical disease = all symptoms present Convalescence = stage of recovery
Contact Is the MOST important route for Nosocomial Infection
Direct Contact Means a Physical contact has been made
Indirect Contact Contaminated objects such as a needle, makes contact
Large droplet/Routes of Transmission Transfers through the air over a short distance, 5 feet or less
Large droplet/Routes of Transmission Examples such as: Rubella, common colds, influenza
Common vehicle (fomite) Contaminated inanimate objects, such as food, water, medications, medical equipment or supplies
Airborne Are smaller droplets that travels 6 feet or more
Airborne Are evaporated droplets or skin squames are inhaled by host
Airborne Requires special ventilation that reduces risk
Airborne Measles, chicken pox, TB, streptococcal infections, wounds
Vectorborne Are caused from: bugs, ticks, mosquitoes, rats, snakes, bees
Vectorborne Cause diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease
Nonspecific Defenses Intact skin, cilia of respiratory tract, age
Specific defenses Immunity
Natural immunity By having had the disease (chicken pox, Epstein Barr virus)
Artificial immunity |Through vaccinations or transplacental (Measles, Rubella, Influenza)
Environmental factors related to nosocomial infections 1) Airflow, temperature, humidity 2) Carpet 3) Flowers 4) Laundry 5) Specific to RT department – bite blocks, table, slider boards, tattoo ink, pens/markers used for skin
Drug-resistant microorganisms Some microorganisms have found ways to change/mutate their genetic makeup and resist antibiotics (MRSA, VRE)
Drug-resistant microorganisms Sometimes the tougher microorganisms can survive if antibiotic use is discontinued
Drug-resistant microorganisms Are responsible for lots of nosocomial infections (aka hospital-acquired infections)
Recommended Vaccinations for HCW "Health Care Workers" 1) Hepatitis B (series of 3 vaccines over time) 2) Influenza (yearly)
Recommended Vaccinations for HCW "Health Care Workers" 3) Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) (usually done in childhood) 4) Diptheria, pertussis, tetanus (DTaP-children)(TDAP-children over 7 & adults)
Recommended Vaccinations for HCW "Health Care Workers" 5) Varicella (series of 2 vaccines given years apart if you have not already had chicken pox)
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) In 1991, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) mandated that hepatitis B vaccination be available to all at-risk employees at no cost
The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine is a 3-part series & is 90% effective
The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is much easier to get than HIV in blood and body fluids and can live for 7 days at room temperature on a surface
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) - True Fact In 1992, 5020 HCW infected, 6 died, 300 turned into chronic hepatitis, which increases risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer
Hepatis C Virus 1) Was identified in 1989 and has become more of a concern 2) There are no vaccines 3) Transmitted through blood, body fluids and household contact
Hepatis C Virus 4) Prevention: risky sexual behavior, drug use, body piercing, tattooing 5) Responsible for almost half of the annual liver transplants
Transmission of Tuberculosis (TB) is airborne – sneeze, cough, talking
If exposed of Tuberculosis (TB) only 5%-10% chance of getting it
Tuberculosis (TB) is on the increase since 1985 due to AIDS, increased immigration and inadequate precautions
There are no effective vaccination found for Tuberculosis (TB): for adults, but CHILDREN (only) in countries with TB endemic are given the BCG vaccine (Bacille Calmette-Guérin)
According to OSHA minimum level of protection is a N-95 respirator (95% of particles will be stopped)
Screening for TB is done by Mantoux test. Mantoux test AKA purified protein derivative (PPD) – an intradermal skin test read 48 hours after given. Considered positive if 10 mm or more of induration
Tuberculosis (TB) can be cured by 10 days of antibiotics – (should not work till treated)
HCW should stay home if any of the following diseases Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) Diarrhea Strep HAV (Hepatitis A Virus) Herpes simplex of exposed skin MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Rabies Staph infection Varicella zoster (Chicken Pox)
VZ chicken pox
VZV Varicella zoster virus
Herpes zoster shingles
Shingles & Chicken Pox relation Shingles lies dormant after having chicken pox and may show up if person is immunosuppressed
Varivax was created for chicken pox in 1995
The FDA approved Zostavax, a vaccine for the herpes-zoster virus In 2007
Only workers who have had chicken pox or the vaccine should work with patients with VZV
Created by: Nablis07
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