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Civil Rights One

1. Define civil rights Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
2a.In terms of equality, what does American society not value? It does not value equal results or equal rewards.
2b. What does this (In terms of equality, what does American society not value?) mean? Few Americans argue that everyone should earn the same salary or have the same amount of property.
2c. What type of equality is valued and what does this mean? Equality of opportunity, or, everyone should have the same chance to succeed.
2d. Where is the only place in the US Constitution that the idea of equality is found? 14th Amendment
3a. In what way does the BoR advance equality? It does not limit the scope of its guarantees to specified groups within society.
3b. Provide 2 examples (of in what way does the BoR advance equality?) Doesn't say that only whites have freedom from self-incrimination or that only men are entitled to freedom of speech.
4. How do the courts determine whether a classification in law is permissible or violates the equal protection of the law? The SC has 3 levels of scrutiny called standards of review.
5a. Laws which classify people by race or ethnicity are what? (2 words) inherent suspect
5b. What does this mean (Laws which classify people by race or ethnicity are what?)? These laws are invalid and uphold them only if they serve a "compelling public interest" and there is no other way to accomplish the purpose of the law.
6a. What is true of classifications based on gender? - what does the Court assume They are neither constitutional nor unconstitutional.
6b. What does this mean (What is true of classifications based on gender?)? Classifications based on gender must bear a substantial relationship to an important governmental purpose.
7a. Provide 2 ways to classify people under the law which fall under the "reasonable" standard who is allowed to vote (states decide over 18yrs) and who is eligible to attend a state university while others are denied admission.
7b. Provide 2 laws that would illustrate this (Provide 2 ways to classify people under the law which fall under the "reasonable" standard) Laws educating students in college, and states can restrict the right to vote to people over 18.
8. In terms of burden of proof, contrast the "reasonable" standard with the "inherently suspect" standard Rule makers (legislatures) and anyone who challenges reasonable classifications have the burden of proving that they are not reasonable. In a racial or ethnic classification, the burden is on the gov. that created it to prove it meets the criteria.
9. Beyond the 14th Amendment, name and briefly describe the other two Civil War Amendments
Created by: Matti