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Cardiovascular Pharm

First Aid: Cardiovascular Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
This diuretic, in addition to being known for potassium wasting, can also be ototoxic. Furosemide
This diuretic, in addition to being known for potassium wasting, can also cause hypercalcemia. Hydrochlorothiazide
This adrenergic agonist is notable for severe rebound hypertension. Clonidine and Methyldopa; centrally acting alpha 2 agonist suppresses sympathetic outflow
This adrenergic agonist is notable for postive Coomb's test leading to hemolytic anemia. Methyldopa
This ganglionic blocker no longer in use had a preference for preganglionic nicotinic receptors. Hexamethonium
This vasodilator which increases cGMP leading to smooth muscle relaxation (arterioles>veins) is notable for a lupus-like side effect. Hydralazine; first line for HTN in pregnancy w/ methydopa
This vasodilator with a preference for veins is related to cyanide toxicity. Nitroprusside
This antihypertensive is associated with fetal renal toxicity. ACE inhibitors
These drugs block voltage dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac and smooth muscle to reduce contractility. Which one is not used to treat arrhythmias? Verapimil, diltiazem, nifedipine; Nifedipine is not used on arrhythmias
This drug increases cGMP leading to smooth muscle relaxation (veins>arterioles). Nitroglycerin
Why are beta blockers and nitrates commonly used together? Beta blockers reduce the baroreceptor response which is initated by the drop in blood pressure seen with nitrates.
This lipid lowering agent decreases LDL and triglycerides (LDL > TG) while increasing HDL. Notable side effect is myositis. Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor)
This lipid lowering agent decreases LDL and triglycerides while increasing HDL. Notable side effect is flushing. Niacin
This lipid lowering agent decreases LDL, mildly elevates TG's and has no effect on HDL (patients hate it). Bile acid resings (cholestyramine and colestipol); patients hate it cuz it tastes bad
This lipid lowering agent decreases LDL and has no effect on HDL or TG's. May raise LFT's Ezetimibe (cholesterol absorption blocker)
This lipid lowering agent decreases LDL and triglycerides (TG > LDL) while increasing HDL. Notable side effect is myositis. Fibrates (gemfibrozil, clofibrate); Similar action on lipids and SE to statins but they decrease LDL>TG's
These antiarrhythmics are used to treat both atrial and ventricular arrhythmia's expecially reentrant and ectopic SVT and ventricular tachycardia. Class 1A; sodium channel blockers (Quinidine, amiodarone, procainamide, disopyramide); increase QT interval so can cause torsade de pointes
Patient presents with headache, tinnitus, and thrombocytopenia. History of arrhythmia. Diagnosis? Cinchonism from qunidine toxicity
This antiarrhythmic is notable for a lupus like syndrome. Procainamide;
These antiarrhythmics decrease cAMP leading to lowered calcium current, suppressing automaticity of pacemakers resulting in prolonged conduction through the AV node. Class II; Beta blockers (propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol); esmolol is very short acting
These agents seek to decrease the action potential duration and are useful in ventricular arrhythmias as well as digitalis induced arrhythmias. Class IB; Na channel blockers (lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide)
These drugs of last resort is used to treat refractory ventricular arrhythmias and rapid atrial arrhthmias associated with WPW. Class IC; flecainide, propafenone, encainide (proarrhythmic, especially post MI)
These drugs of last resort are used to treat recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, but may precipitate torsade de pointe arrhythmias. Class III; potassium channel blockers (sotalol, ibutilide, bretylium, amiodarone)
This class III antiarrhythmic has the notable side effects of pulmonary fibrosis and corneal microdeposits. Amiodarone
This extremely short acting agent is the drug of choice in diagnosing/abolishing AV nodal arrhythmias. Adenosine
This agent depresses ectopic pacemakers, especially in digoxin toxicity. Potassium
This agent is effective in treating torsade de pointes and digoxin toxicity. Magnesium
This drug is used for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias following MI because it works only on ischemic tissue. Lidocaine
This antihypertensive blocks the release of norepinephrine by displacing it from intracellular vesicles. Guanethidine
This rarely used antihypertensive agent blocks the storage and release of catecholamines and serotonin from neurons. Reserpine
This antihyperlipidemic agent may prevent atherosclerosis by acting as an antioxidant. Probucol
Created by: rahjohnson