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earthquake vibrations in the earth caused by the sudden release of energy, usually as a result of the movement of rocks along a fault
crust the earth's outer layer;the coolest and least dense layer of the earth
fault a fracture in bedrock,along which blocks move
mantle the layer of the earth beneath the crust;it is about 2900 km thick, and it makes up about 83% of the earth's interior
lithosphere the cool, solid outer shell of the earth
lithospheric plates it consists of the crust and the rigid uppermost part of the mantle and is broken up into segments
seismologists scientists who study earthquakes
P-waves causes buildings to contract and expand
S-waves shakes buildings from side to side
Surface waves slowest seismic wave that produce the most severe ground movement
focus the point at which a rock under stress breaks and triggers an earthquake
epicenter the point on the surface directly above the focus
Richter Scale rates the earthquake using magnitude to determine the size of the earthquake's waves
Moment Magnitude Scale rates the amount of energy released and the amount of movement along the fault
Mercalli Scale rates earthquake by the amount of damage caused by the earthquake
seismic waves vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
magnitude a measurement of earthquake strength
seismograph records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through the Earth
liquefaction occurs when an earthquake violent shaking suddenly turns loose,soft soil into liquid mud
aftershock an earthquake that occurs after a large earthquake centered in the same area
tsunmai the water displaced by a strong earthquake on the ocean floor forms large waves
base isolators separate or isolate a building from its foundation and prevent some of an earthquake's energy from entering the building
shear core walls transfers some of a quake's energy from roofs and floors to the building's foundation
tension ties tie the floors and ceilings of a building to the wall
mass damper work like shock absorbers in a car to absorb the energy of seismic waves
cross bracing placed between stories to stiffen a building's frame and absorb energy during an earthquake
flexible pipe bend as energy passes through them,greatly reducing damage
compression pushes rock together
tension stretches rock
stress refers to force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Strike-Slip Fault the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other
Normal Fault tension in Earth's crust pulls rock apart
Reverse Fault the blocks move in the opposite direction
shearing stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions
San Andreas Fault strike-slip fault
plateau a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
hanging wall the block of rock that lies above
footwall the rock that lies below
anticline a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
syncline a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley
Created by: 1964362684