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Set 1

earthquakes

TermDefinition
Earthquake vibrations in the earth caused by the sudden release of energy, usually as a result of the movement of rocks along a fault.
Crust The earth's outer layer; the coolest and least dense layer of the earth.
Fault A fracture in bedrock, along which blocks of rock on opposite sides of the fracture move.
Mantle The layer of the earth beneath the crust.
Lithosphere The cool, solid outer shell of the earth.
Lithospheric plates The layer of the mantle that lies directly below the lithosphere.
Seismologists A scientist who studies earthquakes.
P-waves A primary earthquake wave that travels through the body of the earth.
S-waves A secondary earthquake.
Surface waves An earthquake wave that travels on or near the surface of the earth.
Focus The location where the rupture of an earthquake begins and energy is released.
Epicenter The point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of the earthquake.
Richter Scale A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude.
Moment-magnitude The moment magnitude scale is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released.
mercalli scale The Mercalli intensity scale is a seismic scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake.
seismic waves an elastic wave in the earth produced by an earthquake or other means.
magnitude the great size or extent of something.
seismograph an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
Liquefaction Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid loading.
aftershcock a smaller earthquake following the main shock of a large earthquake.
tsunami a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
Base Isolator A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake
Shear core walls shear walls in the center of a large building — often encasing an elevator shaft or stairwel
Tension Ties Helps you fasten down bookshelf etc. during in earthquake
Cross bracing cross bracing is a system utilized to reinforce building structures in which diagonal supports intersect.
Mass damper A mechanical device to dissipate kinetic energy of seismic waves penetrating a building structure.
Flexible pipes flexible pipes that help keep the foundation
compression the reduction in volume (causing an increase in pressure) of the fuel mixture in an internal combustion engine before ignition.
stress pressure or tension exerted on a material object.
tension the state of being stretched tight.
strike-slip fault a fault in which rock strata are displaced mainly in a horizontal direction, parallel to the line of the fault.
normal fault A geologic fault in which the hanging wall has moved downward relative to the footwall.
reverse fault A geologic fault in which the hanging wall has moved upward relative to the footwall.
shearing break off or cause to break off, owing to a structural strain.
San andreas fault n active strike-slip fault in W United States, extending from San Francisco to S California and forming the on-land portion of the western margin of the North American Plate.
plateau a land area having a relatively level surface considerably raised above adjoining land on at least one side, and often cut by deep canyons.
hanging wall the underside of the wall rock overlying a vein or bed of ore. Compare
foot wall a mass of rock lying beneath a fault plane.
antilcline an anticlinal rock structure.
syncline a synclinal fold.
asthenosphere
mantle
crust
Inner core
outer core
Lithosphere
Created by: 1962737964